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LAND RE:GULATI0NS in CANADA 



THE FOLLOWING IS A PLAN OF A TOWNSHIP 
N 

SIX Mil K# SOr \RF 



Ail public UiikIs iu the Provinces of Manitoba. Siiskatchewan, and 
Alb«rta are cimtroUeil and administereil by the Dominion Government 
throueh the Department of the Interior. These are the lands that are dis- 
poso.! of as free homesteads, and are surveyed into square blocks, si.\ miles 
long by six miles wi<le. Such blocks are called townships. 

h'jiih township is subdivided into ;it> square blocks, called sections. A 
«e<-tiofi is a mile square and contains 640 acres. The sections are numbered 
from one to thirty-si.t. 

Each sei-tion is divided into four square blocks, called quarter-sections. 

A quarter-section is half a mile square and contains IGO acres. It is the 
unit on which these lands are dealt with 

.\s a se<-lion is a square whose sides run east and west and north and 
si'Uth. the four quarters which it contains are described, according to their 
hxation, as the northeast quarter, the northwest quarter, the southeast 
quarter, tlic southwest quarter. 

Homestead s. 

Dominion Lands 
in these Provinces 
nia>' 1k' ac»:iniT t'd in 
the form of lioine- 
stoads ol liii) acres 
(one quarter-sec- 
tion). A home- 
stoail is a grant 
made under certain 
conditums involv- 
ing residence and 
improvements' 
upon the land on 
the part of the 
h o racsteader. 
When such duties 
are completed a 
free patent for the 
land is issued to 
the homesteader. 

Who Is Eligible. 
A homestead may 
be taken up by any 
person who is the 
sole head of afamily 
or by any male 
eighteen years of 
age or over, who is 
a British subject or 
who declares his in- 
tention to become a 
British subject. 

A widow having 
minor children of 















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3 


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29 

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.■Showing how the land is divided into square sec- 
tions and square quarter-sections. Also showing 
how the sections in a township are numbered. 



Sortb West 
quarter 


Korth East 
Quarter 


South tVest 
(quarter 


Soutli Host 
Quarter 



Showing how a section 
i.i divided into four 
quaiier-sootion^'. 



her own dependent upon her for support is permitted to make homestead 
r>T AH nr a 5trrTinN entry as the sole head of a family. 
FLA.T ur A 3E,i,iiun Acquiring Homestead. To acquire a homestead 

an applicant must make entry in person, either 
at the Dominion Lands Offic e for the district 
in which the land applied for i- situate, or at a 
sub-agency authorized to trau^ai t l)\isiness in 
such district. At the timr ot i i;try n fee of SIO 
must be paid. The ccrtiliraic it entry ■Wiiich 
is then granted the applu ant m\ es him author- 
ity to enter upon the land and maintain full 
possession of it as long as he complies with the 
homestead requirements. 

Residence. To earn patent for homestead, a 
person must reside in a habitable house upon 
the land for six months during each of three 
years Such residence however, need not be 
commenced before six inonths after the date on 
which entrj' for the land was secured. 
Improvement Dudes. Before being eligible to apply for patent, a home- 
stea-ler must break (plough up) thirty acres of the homestead, of which 
twenty acres must be cropped. It is also required that a reasonable pro- 
portion of thi-s cultivation must be done during each homestead year. 
Bffore being eligible to apply for patent, the homesteader must have a house 
i>n the homestead worth at least S3(M). 

Application for Patent. When a homesteader has completed his residence 
and cultivation duties, he makes his application for patent before the Agent 
of Dominion Lands for the district in which the homestead is situate, or 
before a sub-agent authorized to deal with lands in such district. If the 
duties have been satisfactorily performed patent issues to the homesteader 
shortly after without any further action on his part, and the land thus 
becomes hi-* absolute projierty. 

Pre-emptions. In certain districts in Southern Alberta and Saskatche- 
wan I see man on pages 6 and 7), an additional quarter-section (160 acres) 
may V>e purcha.''e<l under certain resilience and improvement conditions by 
a person who has secured a homestead, but who has not previou.sIy obtained 
u pre-emj)tion under any Dominion Lands Act. Usually entry for home- 
stead and pre-<?mi)tion is made at the same time. 

Must Adjoin Homestead. The pre-empted land must adjoin the home- 
pteail or be separated therefrom by only a road allowance. 

Entry. .Vs in the ca.se of homesteads, entry must be made in person 
iM'fore tlie .\gent 'if Dominion Lands in whose district the land is situate, 
"f before a sub-agent authorized to deal with lands in such district. An 
entry fee of Sl't must he paiil at the time of entry. Only a person witli 
a lioincTiteail entry may enter for a pre-emption. 

Rcri.!<>nc<' D'ries. In addition to the six months' residence in each of 
a connection with homestead, a person who has entered 
id [ire-emption must put in six months' residence in 
ir." Ut secure patent for both This residence may be 
pui ill ■ ri. ■ at ai r ii ioc'tcad or pre-emption and must be in a habitable hou.se. 

Improvement Duties. The cultivation requii;ed in connection with a 
h imenteail and pre-emption is eighty acres. This may be done on either 
the homeotcail or pre-emption or part of it on each. A reasonable pro- 
portion of such cultivation mu.st be done each year 

Payment. Payment for a pre-emption must be made at the rate of 
$.{ '10 per acre follows 

f>ne-third of the purchaic price at the enil of three years from date of 
< nln.- Ht! in. <• in fl e equal annual installments with interest at h per cent 
:it t' I frorn the date of the pre-emption entry. 

p- I The procedure for securing patent for pre-emption 

i« m ' lure in regard to patent for homestead. There are 

no fc'- 

Tirobci and Fuel. An occupant of a homestead quarter-section. 
havioK D" suitable timber of his own, may obtain on [laymcnt of a 25-cent 



fee a permit to cut 3,000 lineal feet of building timber, 400 roof poles SOO 
fence posts, 2.000 fence rails. 

Homesteaders and all bona fide settlers, without timber on their own 
farms, may also obtain permits to cut dry timber for their own use on 
their farms for fuel and fencing. 

CUSTOMS REGULATIONS 

The following is an extract from the customs tariff of Canada specifvinir 
the articles that can have free entry • ' 

Settlers' EfTects, viz: Wearing apparel, household furniture books 
implements and tools of trade, occupation, or employment; guns 'inusicai 
instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, live stock 'bicycles 
carts, and otlier vehicles, and agricultural implements in use by the settlei- 
for at least six months before his removal to Canada, not to include machin- 
ery or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment or for 
sale; also books, iMctures, family plate or furniture, personal effects and 
heirlooms left by bequest; provided, that any dutiable articles entered as 
settlers' effects may not be so entered unless brought with the settler on his 
first arrival, and shall not be sold or otlierwise disposed of without payment 
of duty untd after twelve months' actual use in Canada. 

The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied him 
by the customs office on application) giving description, value, etc of the 
goods and articles he wishes to be allowed to bring in free of duty He 
will also be required to take the following oath: 

I;- , , . •■•.flo hereby solemnly make oath and 

say that all the goods and articles hereinbelore mentioned are to the best 
of my knowledge and belief entitled to free entry as settlers' effects under 
the tariff of duties of customs now in force, and that all of them have been 
owned by myself for at least six months before removal to Canada; and 
that none of the goods or articles shown in this entry have been imported 
as merchandise for any use in a manufacturing establishment or as a con- 
tractor's outfit, or for sale, and that I intend becoming a permanent settler 
within the Dominion of Canada, and that the "Live Stock" enumerated in 
the entry hereunto attached, is inteniled for niy own use on the farm which 
I am about to occupy (or cultivate), and not for sale or speculative purposes 
nor ior the use of any other person or persons. ' 

Sworn before me this day of 19... 



Collector. 



FREIGHT REGULATIONS 

1. Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of the settlers' 
tariff, may be made up of the following described property for the benefit 
of actual settlers, viz: Live stock, any number up to but not exceeding 
fen (10) head, all told, viz: Cattle, calves, sheep, hogs, mules, or horses; 
Household Goods and personal property (.second-hand); Wagons or other 
vehicles for personal use (second-hand); Farm Machinery, Implements, and 
Tools (all second-hand); Soft-wood Lumber (Pine, Hemlock, or Spruce — 
only) and Shingles, which must not exceed 2,000 feet in all, or the equivalent 
thereof; or in lieu of, not in addition to. the lumber and shingles, a Portable 
House may be shipped; Seed Grain, small quantity of trees or shrubbery; 
small lot live poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the live stoclc 
while on the journey. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on 
shipments of second-hand Wagons. Buggies, Farm Machinery, Implements, 
or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods. 

2. Should the allotted number of live stock be exceeded, the additional 
animals will be charged for at proportionate rates over and aDove the carload 
rate for tlie Settlers' Effects, but the total charge for any one such car will 
not exceed the regular rate for a straight carload of Live Stock. 

3. Passes. — One man will be pas.sed free in charge of live stock when 
forming part of carloads, to feed, water, and care for them in transit. Agents 
will use the usual form of Live Stock Contract. 

4. Less than carloads will be understood to mean only Household 
goods (second-hand). Wagons or other vehicles for personal use (second- 
hand), and (second-hand) Farm Macliinery, Implements, and Tools. Less 
than carload lots must be plainly addressed. Minimum charge on any ship- 
ment will be 100 pounds at regular first-class rate. 

5. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also 
implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded as Set- 
tlers' Effects, and, if shipped, will be charged at the regular classified tariff 
rates. Agents, both at loading and delivering stations, therefore, give 
attention to the pre\enlion of the loading of the contraband articles and 
see that the actual weights are way-billed when carloads exceed 24,000 lbs. 
on lines north of St. Paul, 

6. Top Loads. — .'\gent3 do not permit, under any circumstances, any 
article to be loaded on the top of box or stock cars; such manner of loading 
is dangerous ami absolutely forbidden, 

7. Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to the carload rates, cannot be stopped 
at any point short of destination for the imrpose of unloading part, "The 
entire carload must go through to the station to which originally consigned, 

8. The carloail nates on Settlers' laffects apply on any shipment occu- 
pying a car weighing 24.000 |ioiinils or less. If the carload weigh over 24.000 
lbs. the additional weight will be charged for. North of St. Paul, Minn., 
24,000 lbs, coiistitiites a carload, between Chicago and St, Paul and Kansas 
('ity or Oni.aha aii-l St, Paul a carload is 20,000 lbs. From Chicago and 
Kansas City north to St. Paul any amount over this will be charged extra. 
From points Soiitli and fCast of Chicago, only five horses or heads of live 
stock are allowed in carloads, any over this will be charged extra; carload 
12,000 lbs, minimum, 

9. Minimum charge on any shipment will be 100 lbs. at first-class rate. 

QUARANTINE OF SETTLERS' CATTLE 

Settlers' cattle must be inspected at the boundary. Inspectors may 
.subject any cattle showing symptoms of tuberculosis to the tuberculin test 
fjcfore allowing theni to enter. Any cattle found tuberculous to be returned 
to the Uniteil States or killeil without indemnity. Settlers' horses are 
a linitted on inspe iion if aeromiianied by certificate mallein test signed 
by l.'nited States I'.ineaii Inspector. If not so accompanied will be tested 
at Boundary. Certilieate frorn any others not accepted. Horses found 
to be affected with glanclers within .six months of entry are slaughtereil 
without compensation. Sheep may be admitted subject to inspection at 
port of entry. If iliseasc is disraivered to exist in them, they may be returned 
or slaughtered. Swine may be admitted, when forming part of settlers' 
effects; but only after a quarantine of thirty days, and when accompanied 
by a certificate that swine plague or hog cholera has not existorl in the, 
district whence they came for six inontha pri-eeding the date of shipment; 
when not accompanied liy such cert ifii-ate, they must be subject to insjiec- 
tion at port of entry. If ilisea.sed to be slaughtered, without compensation. 




Mixed Farming pavs in almo'st every District of Central Canada 



iR SEVERAL YEARS PAST the 
Departmont of the Interior of the 
Dominion of Canada has pubhshed 
reports showing the possibihties and 
development of agricultural indus- 
tries in the Provinces of JIanitoba, 
Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British 
Tolumbia. Great changes have taken 
place in the year 1910, and there has 
lieen a rapid growth. 

During the year 1910 there were 
48,2.57 homestead entries as compared 
with 37,061 in 1909, over 30 per cent 
increase; 14,704 were made by former residents of the United 
States. The total number entered for during the years 1909-10 
was 85,318, or over 21,000 square miles of territory, and with 
the pre-emptions added there was an area taken up as large 
as the State of Indiana; more than half the size of Illinois 
or Wisconsin. The 14,704 homesteads taken up by the 
people of the United States last year, if in one block, would 
cover 3,500 square miles, in addition to which, there might 
be added 1,000 square miles taken up by pre-emption— an 
additional 160 acres of land which the homesteader ma.y 
purchase on settlement conditions. Lands sold by the rail- 
way companies, land corporations, and private individuals, 
very little of which was sold for speculative purposes but 
for immediate cultivation, when added to the above figures 
show an area much larger than that taken up by homestead 
and pre-emption. School lands are sold by the Government, 
from time to time by public auction, and the proceeds go 
towards education, therefore taxation is made very light. 

In 1910, with the exception of the District of Columbia, Indian 
Territory, and the State of Delaware, every state in the Union 
contributed homesteaders to Central Canada. The people near 
the Canadian border were drawn from in the greatest 
numbers. It was an easy matter to see for themselves what 
these lands could produce. The climatic conditions were 
abo*it as their own. They were able to sell their improved 
and well cultivated holdings to the land-hungered from 
the states to the south, and for the money received secure 
four or five times the area of as good land in Manitoba, 



Saskatchewan, or Alberta. Experience will yet teach and the 
proportion from the Central and Southerly States going to 
Canada will shortly be found to compete with the states that 
now give such excellent figures. There is still plenty of land. 

Place a pair of dividers with one leg on the boundary 
between the I'nited States and Canada and the other leg 
at Key West, Fla. Then swing the lower leg to the north- 
west and it will not reach the limit of good agricultural 
land. Here is the field for the world's next farming race. 
Nature knows no political parties, no race exclusiveness, 
she recognizes no dividing parallels of latitude. The 
industrious worker who knows something of farming can 
scarcely fail of success here. This is why a yearly stream 
of immigrants is pouring in to this western land from 
Europe on the east, and from the United States on the south. 

The Prairie Provinces contain 350 million acres of land, of 
which 150 million acres is almost entirely unexplored. The 
total area of surveyed land, all agricultural, is 149 million 
acres. Of this area only about l-lh million acres has been 
brought under cultivation. As fast as the lands are settled, 
the railroads extend their lines into each new section. 

Nationality is no bar to progress, if a man has pluck and 
determination, but a natural preference is shown to those 
who speak English and appreciate weU-modelled institu- 
tions. Good common sense, a willingness to work, an accept- 
ance of conditions, all make for success. 

IMMIGRATION TO CANADA FROM JULY i, 1906, TO JAN. i, 

Britiiih Continental U. S. 

Fiscal period (9 mos.) 1906-1907 .. 55.791 34.217 34,659 

Fiscal year 1907-1908 .120.182 83,975 58,312 

Fiscal year 1908-1909 . 52.901 34,175 59.832 

Fiscal year 1909-1910 .59.790 45.206 103,798 

Fiscal year (9 mos.) 1910-1911.98.996 56,628 97,702 

Totals 387,660 254,201 .354,303 996.164 

Year by year the number of immigrants has increased. 
This would not have been had conditions been unfavour- 
able, had there been general failure of crops, or had the 
facts as presented by the Government not been verified. 

"The Twentieth Century is Canada's," says Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier. The words are prophetic; yet the prophecy is 
already in process of fulfillment. In an age when towns are 
founded over night and become thriving cities — when a single 
season suffices for carving a profitable farm out of raw 
prairie — and when express trains are bringing to Central 




Am. Ed. 



1 



THE LAST BEST WEST 



Canada thousands who set straightway about bearing each 
his share in development — need anyone wonder at the 
assertion that the present opportunities in this Last Best 
West will not be long available? 

Picture an immense and fertile country, the surface of 
which, as the President of the United States has observed, 
has been only scratched. That is Central Canada. Imagine, 
sprinkled over this domain, a vast army of prosperous 
workers, each creating opportunity, seizing opportunity, and 
advancing his own fortunes. Fancy, further, treading close 
on the heels of this army in possession, another army of the 
ambitious, crowding in to share in the occupation of the land. 

Is it not plainly to be seen why Central Canada is prosper- 
ous? Why railway after railway is building? Why thriving 
towns quickly appear wherever the railway stops-its trains? 
Why elevator capacity is doubling and redoubling, and why 
merchant and farmer and labourer rejoice in a general plenty? 

The Canadian prairies have established a convincing record 
in the matter of grain production, and the messages contented 
farmers have been sending back to their friends in the old 
homes have published widely the story of Canadian prosperity. 

Each newcomer finds a welcome, and each one, besides 
finding what he comes for, in some degree adds to the value 
of the holdings of those who have preceded him. 

The settler of to-day has no longer the pioneer's fear of 
untoward conditions. Hardships, if they be encountered, 
are peculiar to the individual and his circumstances. As 
for the country itself, it is new, but not rough; only partly 
developed, but orderly. It is a region of potential and of 
actual wealth. Its possibilities attract alike the rich, the 
well-to-do, and the comparatively poor man, and in this 
well-balanced community, capital, labour, intelligence, 
and enterprise all find employment. The frontier is 
advancing daily. New railways are blazing new trails for 
settlement. Improved social conditions keep pace with 
industrial progress. And thus, gradually, healthily, and 

with sure momen- 
tum, the inflowing 
tide of robust 
citizenship is open- 
ing up the Last 
Best West. 

Sir Wilfrid Lau- 
rier, in a tour of 
Western Canada, 
visited many of 
the districts in 
which .\mericans 
have settled, and 
in reply to an ad- 
dress of welcome, 
by Americans said 
in part; 

"I understand 
that many of you 
have come from 
the great Repulilic 
to the south of us 
— a land which is 
akin to us by blood 
and tradition. I 
hope that in com- 
ing from a Irec 
countrj'you realize 
that yon come also 
to another free 
co\iiitry, and that 
although you came 
from a republic 
you have come to 




At thf I'ational Corr Exposition at Columbus, 
Ohio, Hill & Sons, of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, 
received the $1,500 Silver Trophy, awarded by the 
State of Colorado for the best peck of oats; while 
Sorman Cherry, of Davis, Saskatchewan, took first 
rize, world's class, peck of wheat; G. H. Button, of 



combe, took second place. 



what is a crowned 



democracy. In coming here and becoming naturalized citi- 
zens of this country, no one desires you to forget the land of 
your ancestors. It would be a poor man who would not 
always have in his heart a fond affection for the land which 
he came from. While you should not, and we do not desire 
that you should, forget that you were born Americans, still 
we desire there should be a still greater bond of union between 
the land of your birth and the land of your adoption. 

"I hope that in coming here as you have, you have found 
liberty, justice, and equality of rights. In this country, as 
in your own, you know nothing of separation of creed and 
race, for you are all Canadians here. And if I may express 
a wish it is that you would become as good Canadians as 
you have been good Americans and that you may yet remain 
good Americans. We do not want you to forget what you 
have been; but we want you to look more to the future than 
to the past. Let me, before we part, tender you the sincere 
expression of my warmest gratitude for your reception." 

WHAT HAS BEEN SAID OF CENTRAL CANADA 

President Taft's Message. — Mr. Taft in his message to 
Congress asking for the endorsation of the reciprocity 
agreement, practically insisted on its adoption because it 
would open up the way to obtaining a food supply for the 
people of the ^Republic. He did not say that Canada was 
destined to become the chief wheat-producing country 
of the North American Continent, but he did say that it 
was a great country, with whom the people of the United 
States should be on good terms in everything. 

Sees a Future for Canada. — W. C. Brown, of the New 
York Central, speaking at Galesburg, 111., said: 

Some of the states which a few years ago produced a large surplus of 
wheat now barely raise enough for home consumption. If population 
continues to increase as rapidly as it has in the past, within a very few 
years this country as a whole will be on a wlieat importing rather than 
exporting basis, and the wheat from Canada will be needed to supply our 
people with bread. 

Mr. Louis Hill of the Great Northern Railway. — Speaking 
to the senators of Oregon, Mr. Louis Hill, the President 
of the Great Northern Railway said that while the State 
of Washington had more than doubled in population in 
ten years, there were districts in Western Canada in which 
the population had increased eightfold during the same period. 

Henry Howard, of the Investors' Guardian, one of the most 
important financial papers in England, after a trip through 
Western Canada, said that the developments there were 
meeting with the approval of British capitalists, whose 
interest in the country was permanent and lasting. 

The editor of the London Statist, in writing of the splendid 
field that exists in Canada for British capital, says: 

Illinois, Iowa, ami the Dakotas are now highly bultivated and farmers 
desiring land at low prices have to go still farther West. In these circum- 
stances large number.s of the old Canadian farmers who moved west from 
Eastern Canada into the United States are returning to Canada. Further- 
more, considerable numbers of American farmers are also coming into 
Western Canada. 

Another factor — the worM's unappropriated lands are fast becoming 
exhausted and Canada is one of the few countries which can still make gratis 
grants of fertile lan<l to any one who will carry out the very simple and 
easy conditions attacheil. The construction of new railways is opening up 
new districts. These homestead attractions hold out to everyone the 
prospect of ownership of farms likely to increase in capital value. 

The large number of hours of sunshine pressed into a few months more than 
make up for the shortne.ss of the season and there is ample time to sow and 
to harvest the crops. Further, liability todaniage from frost and droughts 
is diminishing as cultivation extends. In brief, from whatever point of 
view the outlook is regarded, the future of Canada appears to be assured. 

The manager of the Merchants Bank of Canada recently 
visited the Central Canadian Provinces, and says: 

All that I found in the situation there was as interesting as instructive, 
and I carried back with me the conviction that our business in that magnifi- 
cent western field was very valuable and potentially even more so. 

During the last five years the great increase in the estab- 
lisliment of bank branches has been most marked in Sas- 
katcliewan where the number of branches of chartered banks 
has increa.sed from .59, in 190.5, to 2.55 in September, 1910; 
Alberta branches have increased from .58 to 180 in the same 
period, and the Province of Manitoba now has 187 banks. 

W. D. Matthews, the head of a great grain-exporting 
business in Canada, after returning from a trip through Western 
Canada, said that the crop of 1910 would give a magnificent 
return, and there was reason for the optimism with which 
westerners view the future. 



CANADA WEST 



Canada spreads over more than half tlie map of North 
America. It is considerably larger than the United States, 
with Alaska added. Politically, Canada consists of nine 
full-fledged Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
Alberta, and British Columbia^, and to the north of these 
a Northern Canada consisting of the Yukon west of 
the Rocky 



Mountains, and 
the Northwest 
Territory east. 

It is, how- 
ever, with the 
three Prairie 
Provinces of 
Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan, and 
Alberta and the 
Pacific Prov- 
ince of British 
Columbia, that 
this geograph- 
ical sketch 
will deal. 



cmiDiAH PACieic nr. 



RAILWAYS. 1896 

HOUTHEKN PACIFIC fir. UAH, t NOR. WM Kr., 



OTHER RAILWArS- 




RAILWATS IN OPERATION IN WESTERN CANADA IN 189G 



Canada is a country with a meagre past, a solid present, 
and an illimitable future. The railways of Western Canada 
gridiron a prairie land of 200 million fertile acres, only a 
fraction of which is cultivated, yet this produced in 1910— 
a bad year throughout the American continent — approxi- 
mately 258,000,000 bushels of wheat, oats, barley, and flax 
of which 10.5,000,000 bushels was wheat. (jLIMATE OF 

CENTRAL 
CANADA 

The first en- 
quiry of the 
would-be set- 
tlep is, "But 
what about 
your terrible 
weather?" 
Many writers 
on Canada ta- 
boo the wea- 
ther, but this 
subject, like 
most, is best at- 
tackedfromthe 
front. Western 



Five times bigger than Great Britain and Ireland, and 
three times the size of the German Empire, Prairie Canada 
constitutes the world's greatest wheat farm, a plain 1,000 
miles long and of undetermined width. This fertile prairie 
is watered by three giant river systems. The Assiniboine 
and the Red drain Manitoba; the great Saskatchewan waters 
Central and Southern .Alberta and the Province of Saskatche- 
wan; while the Peace, the mighty Athabaska, and the Slave 
Rivers are Nature's highways through Northern Alberta. 
Canada's river ways and lakes make of this Last Best West 
one vast network of sunny slopes and fertile valleys. More 
than farms are making on these prairies. Here, on a wheat 
plain wider than that of Russia, richer than those of Egypt, 
India, or the Argentine, out of strangely diverse elements 
a new nation is arising. The map of to-day shows us a 
wide wheat plain dotted by the people of the earth, with an 
ever-lessening unsurveyed region. Year by year, these 
maps change their complexion, and the "edge of culti- 
vation," with 

the advance of RAILWAYS 
colonization, 
having entered 
the Rockies in 
its western ad- 
v a n c e , n o w 
moves steadily 
northward. 

The St. Law- 
rence Basin of 
EasternCanada 
was at first 
c o nsidered 
frost-bound 
and sterile, the 
Eraser lands of 
British Colum- 
bia rockv and 



Canada has a cold winter, and people seeking tropical climate 
should not come here. It is the fervid sunshine of summer, 
followed by the cold, clear winter, which combine to give to 
Canada's No. 1 wheat its peculiar value over all other wheats 
in the world. This invigorating climate of Western Canada 
does more than this— it helps to breed a hardy race. The law 
of growth — running through both animal and vegetable realms 
—is that plants and animals alike attain their fullest develop- 
ment in the most northern range of their habitat. The same 
rule applies to man. History and geography both show that 
all the worth-while accomplishments of the world have been 
done by those living in the Temperate Zones, more especially in 
the North Temperate Zone. Western Canada lies in the same 
latitude as Central Europe, the home of the world's hardiest and 
most progressive peoples. Clearly Mother Nature intended the 
wheat plains of Western Canada to be the cradle of a strong, 
new race. While it is true that the Prairie Belt of Canada is 
no country for either mental or physical weaklings, that the 

man who suc- 



1910 



CANAD!A>I PACIFIC RY . 
GREAT I^ORTHERN RY. 



GRAND TRUNK RAC. RY., 
RAILWAYS PROJECTED. 



Morinvill*/ 
EDMONTO-jf 



^.\tbsba£ka Land] 




RAILWAYS IN OPERATION IN WESTERN CANADA IN 



inaccessible, and the valleys of the Red and the Saskatche- 
wan too far north to support a white population. Now 
all these basins are occupied, and the sons of the men 
who saw these lands developed, are in turn laying strong 
hands upon the basins of the Peace, the Mackenzie, and the 
Athabaska, and platting townships in the latitude of 58°. 



ceeds here, like 
the man who 
succeeds else- 
where, must be 
brave and a 
worker, still it is 
strikingly true 
that the climate 
of Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan, 
and Alberta is 
one of the most 
healthful and 
stimulating i n 
the whole world. 

Farmers, 
though, are 
more interested 

in summer crops than winter temperature. If they get the 
fervid sunshine at the maturing time, the winter frosts need 
not worry them. The long hours of intense sunshine on the 
prairies are a revelation to newcomers. One may read in J une 
till 9.30p m.in the open air in a most marvellous twilight, and by 
3.00 o'clock in the morning the sun is again well on his rounds. 



4 



THE LAST BEST WEST 



To the superKcial- observer, latitude has always been a 
bugbear when Canada is under consideration. Let us look 
at a few facts. Edmonton is 1,000 miles northwest of Winni- 
peg, and St. Paul, in Minnesota, is 500 miles south of Winnipeg, 
yet Edmonton's average annual temperature is as high 
as that of St. Paul. Manitoba has a similar climate to that 
of Northern Michigan. The mean temperature in Winnipeg 
for July is 66°, which is warmer than the July weather in 
any part of England. Flower growth in the valley of the 
Mackenzie is almost coincident in time with the flower 
growth in the valley of the Mississippi. Wild flax grows 
within the Arctic Circle, and there are wheat-fields and 
flour mills at Vermilion-on-the- Peace in latitude 58° 30'. 

The warm chinook winds sweeping through the passes of 
the Rockies over the farms of Central Canada melt the snow 
and mellow the soil. These are facts; and it is conditions 
not theories, that the farmer must face. 

RAILWAYS 

Four great railway systems operate in Western Canada — 
the Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern, the Grand Trunk 
Pacific, and the Great Nortliern. The pre.sent mileage is 
about 11,500 and constantly increasing. 

Tlie Canadian Pacific Railway has over 5,000 miles of track 
in operation west of Winnipeg, exclusive of tlieir yard track- 
age in Winnipeg, which makes another 120 miles. To this 
should rightfully be added the water routes on the British 
Columbia inland lakes, another 342 miles. There are 1,200 
wheat elevators along the Canadian Pacific Railway lines 
west of Port Arthur. The system as a whole operates 70 
steamships, 1,399 locomotives, 1,684 passenger and sleeping 
cars, and 44,692 freight cars, and with lines under its control 
it has more mileage tlian any railway oh the continent. 

This railway announces that during 1911 it will build 
lines southwest from Moose Jaw, southeast and northwest 
from Swift Current, northwest from Estevan, extend the 
line from Lacombe (Alberta), build south from Wilkie 
and also northwest, and also do considerable work on the 
Lethiiridge-Weyburn line. 

The Canadian Northern lias the unparalleled record of 
building a mile a day for every day of the last twelve years. 
It operates 500 wheat elevators and warehouses, and in the 
vear 1909, carried to the lake ports 29 million bushels of 
grain, 21 million bushels of which was wheat. It has the 
largest wheat elevator in the world, at Port Arthur, with a 
capacity of 7i million bushels. Extending from Port Arthur 
to beyond Edmonton in direct line, this western section of 
the road will soon connect with its eastern line,- opening 
up much fertile wooded land north of Lake Superior. East 
and west its branches stretch, and it will not be many years 
until it reaches the Far North and the Far Pacific. 




Gaaolinr Kngine " Breakint " the Prairie in Battleford (Saskatchewan) District 



The Grand Trunk Pacific and the Grand Trunk Railway 
will ultimately have a combined mileage of 13,895 miles. 
The Grand Trunk Pacific has charters to build twenty-three 
branch lines, and was an active factor in the movement of 
the 1910 wheat crop. One hundred and thirty-five new 
towns will be built on this line between Winnipeg and 
Edmonton, of which 100 have already had a beginning. 

The building of the Grand Trunk Pacific has opened up 
millions of acres hitherto inaccessible commercially, and with 
the completion of its branch lines the area so benefited will 
be still further increased. 

The Great Northern has a number of branch lines which 
extend into the provinces of Manitoba, Alberta, and British 
Columbia, with others in prospect. 

The railways are looking for business and when any group 
of farmers shows that they can produce a substantial some- 
thing to be sent out to the rest of the world, they will not 
have to wait long for a railroad. Recognizing the vital part 
which the railways play in the life of Canada and the possi- 
bility of the abuse of power on the part of railroad owners, 
the Government has established a commission or court 
which is clothed with full authority to adjust all disputes 
between"] the public and the railways and to absolutely 
control freight and passengers rates. 

By the end of next year there will be but few districts 
in the three provinces which are not within easy range of 
some point on the great railway systems of the Dominion. 

CROP-HANDLING CAPACITY— ELEVATORS 

In Manitoba there is an elevator capacity of 21,752,000 
bushels, an increase of 772,000 bushels over the year 1908. 
The storage capacity in Saskatchewan increased from 
17,924,500 in 1908 to 26,440,000 in 1910. Alberta's elevator 
capacity has almost doubled, being now 8,764,500 bushels 
as against 4,092,400 bushels in 1908. The elevators in 
tlie Prairie Provinces west of Winnipeg have a storage capacity 
of 56,933,300 bushels, an increase of over 13,500,000 over 
1908. The development is going on so rapidly that it is 
safe to assume that a proportionate yearly increase or 
storage will be necessary for the next ten years at least. 

GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION 

"How am I to be governed?" is asked by the intelligent 
settler who contemplates bringing his family into Canada that 
they may grow up to be a part of this new land. 

Canada is an integral part of the British Empire and is 
essentially a self-governing nation. The duties of lawmaking 
are divided between the Dominion and the Provinces. 

The Dominion Parliament is composed of two houses — an 
appointed Senate and an elected Commons. The qualifi- 
cation of voters for the Dominion Commons is either manhood 
suffrage — one man, one vote — or if a prop- 
erty qualification is imposed, it is so light 
as to practically exclude no one. 

Parliament makes the laws. Their admin- 
istration is in the hands of a Cabinet, each 
member of which must be also a member of 
either the House of Commons or the Senate. 
Each Minister, as a member of the Cabinet 
is called, is responsible to the people for his 
every administrative act. A Cabinet remains 
in power only so long as it retains the sup- 
port of a majority of the members of the 
House of Commons. 

The Dominion Parliament deals with the 
militia, criminal law, railways, customs, post 
office, the tariff, and trade relations with 
other countries. The Dominion controls the 
administration of public lands in the three 



CANADA ^YEST 



5 




Prairie Provinces and in Northern Canada. As t hese provinces 
contain millions of acres of unoccupied agricultural land, 
whicli is immediately available for settlement, the Dominion 
government takes up very earnestly the work of promoting 
and encouraging the right kind of immigration. 

Each Province has a legislative body and an administra- 
tive body. The governing body in each of the Provinces of 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, .\lberta, and British Columbia, 
consists of one house, elected by popular vote; and a cabinet. 
The legislature makes the laws, the cabinet supervises their 
administration. As in the Dominion Parliament each mem- 
ber of a cabinet in any of these provinces must also be a 
member of the legislative body; and the cabinet remains 
in power only so long as it commands the support of a 
majority of the members of the legislative body. The 
legislatures make civil law and administer criminal law, pro- 
vide for municipal government, and deal generally with 
matters of a provincial nature. Each Province is in absolute 
control of its own system of provincial education, and proba- 
bly no country in the world enjoys a broader or more generous 
system of public education. Western Canada, untrammeled 
by old-world tradition, has evolved a system of free public 
schools admirably fitted to 'the needs of a new country. 
Provision for education is generous, the desire being to 
bring within the reach of each child the opportunity of 
acquiring a sound English education. 

Law and Order. — Canad ans have reason to feel proud of 
the laws governing the country and the manner in which 
they are administered. There is an observance of them that 
is appreciated by all law-abiding citizens. 

VARIETY OF RESOURCES 

The industrial future of Prairie Canada is based upon 
a wonderful variety of natural resources. Attention has 
been chiefly directed to the opportunity in wheat, but in a 
plain which stretches 1,000 miles one way and over 600 miles 
another, inducements of diverse character offer. The sur- 
face of the country consists of a series of terraced plains 
running northwest and southeast parallel to the Piockies. 
Western Alberta extends to and beyond the foot-hills of the 
Rocky Mountains with elevations as high as 4,000 feet above 
sea level. Passing east from here the foot-hills give way to a 
great prairie steppe embracing about three-fourths of Alberta. 
The average elevation, of this section is 2,000 feet above sea 
level. The next great elevated plain, with a mean height of 
1,000 feet, broadly speaking, includes the whole Province 
of Saskatchewan. And the major part of Manitoba attains 
an elevation of between .500 and 1,000 feet. 

The resources of these three provinces make possible suc- 

Am. Ed. 



cessful farming of every de- 
scription. "Extensive " farm- 
ing, that is, grazing and grain 
growing, has blazed the way 
on the prairies. Now, mixed, 
or "intensive," farming is 
treading close on the heels of 
the wheat grower. 

Comparisons are sometimes 
illuminating. In Canada, a 
population less than that of 
greater London, in addition to 
one already completed, is now 
throwing two additional great 
s\ orld highways across a region 
which, twenty-five years ago, 
w as stigmatized as an unpro- 
ductive desert. The Wall 
Street Journal declares that 
within five years the Canadian Northern and Canadian 
Pacific, alone, will haul more wheat to the seaboard than all 
the railways of the United States combined. Lord Strath- 
cona says: "At the end of the 20th century Canada will 
have a population twice as large as that of the British Isles." 

Population. — The people are coming in. The population of 
the three Prairie Provinces grew from 400,000 in 1901, to about 
a million and a quarter in 1910. It is no country for drones. 
The man who does not work in Canada, whether he be a rich 
man or a poor man, is looked upon with suspicion by tha rest. 

Forest Reserves and Tree ♦Culture.— Numerous forest 
reserves have been established throughout the Western Prov- 
inces. These serve a double purpose: They protect the 
sources of the principal rivers and streams and provide for a 
timber supply for future years. 

Not so long ago, the people of Central Canada were told 
they could grow no trees except the Manitoba maple, the 
poplar, and the birch. Broadway, in Winnipeg, is one of 
the most beautiful streets in the world, and the elms have 
made it so. The foliage has become so thick that the trees will 
have to be thinned out. Of all the elms planted in Winnipeg 
not one per cent has died. In several western towns there 
are splendid avenues of trees, of a few years' growth. 

The Dominion Government has for some years actively 
encouraged tree culture by individual farmers in the Prairie 
Districts. It not only provides free seeds but also provides for 
supervision of the planting and for inspection of the plantation 
from time to time by experts. Up to the present (1910) 16i 
million trees have been planted under this government scheme. 

Water. — There are very few districts where water cannot 
be readily secured. In some cases the provincial governments 
supply machinery for sinking test wells. Artesian wells, with 
a never-failing supply, have solved the water question in some 
parts. Then again, there is the river and lake system of the 
country. In selecting land, some prefer lands having dips 
or depressions, which not only supply water, but also ensure 
sufficient native hay for horses, cattle, and sheep that may 
require "housing" during a part of the winter. 

Value of Farm Lands Increasing. — The crops of the last 
seven years and the impetus given thereby to immigration' 
have been prime factors in promoting an upward trend of 
values. The prices asked at present for good agricultural 
land are not high. Those competent to judge say that the 
crops of Western Canada will make farming on land worth 
8100 per acre profitable. Thus it will be seen that the value 
attached to property at present is remarkably low considering 
the productive capacity of the soil. In 1901 lands were for 
sale by the different railway companies at prices averaging 




6 



Area available for pre-emptions— Tinted green. 
Each square represents a township 6 miles square. 



8 



THE LAST BEST WEST 




Getting the Ground Ready for Another Season's Crop 



January 1, 1911, gave about 
50 million dollars; oats, 3J- 
million dollars; flax, 6^ million 
dollars, and barley $581,000. 

WILL A QUARTER- 
SECTION PAY? 

"Will the tilling of a quarter 
of a section (160 acres) pay?" 
when asked of those who have 
tried it provokes the invari- 
able answer that "It will and 
does pay." "We, or those 
following us, will make less 
than that pay," said one who 
had proved up on a home- 
stead. Another pointed for 
. proof to the fact that many of 
those who commenced on 
homesteads are now owners of 



from .S3 to S4 per acre, and now they range from $10 to 
$15 per acre and upwards. Prices in 1915 may be advanced 
as much beyond present values as those quoted are in excess 
of the figures of seven or eight years ago. 

The person desirous of buying should investigate thor- 
oughly. There is so much good land for sale, and so 
many good companies through whom to do business, that 
no one need be duped in a transaction of this nature. 
The land departments of the different railways having 
lands for sale supply prices and terms to prospective 
purchasers. 

Harvest Help Needed.— From 20,000 to 30,000 extra 
hands are required in the harvest fields of Central Canada 
each year, while the big areas of land broken, constantly call 
for additional men. 

Big Land Rushes.— So great is the demand for the free 
lands of Central Canada that remarkable rushes take place 
when new and specially desirable areas are thrown open for 
settlement. In connection with these rushes great care is 
taken to guard against any departure from the Government's 
policy of "first come first served." The consequence is the 
land seekers have the choice of the land in the order in which 
they get to the oflSce. When there is a rush for newly opened 
land, the land seekers fall into single file and get to the office 
counter in the order of their position in the file. In January, 
1910, 1,100 pieces were thrown open at Lethbridge (Albertai. 
A thousand persons lined up from the land office around a 
whole block to take their turns to enter for homesteads. 
Some sat out for three days before the opening, lined up along 
the fence facing the entrance to the land office in order to 
secure a front position in the line. 

One hundred and twelve quarter-sections, 18,000 acre.-;, or 
about seven-ninths of a township, were "homcsteaded" in 
one day at the Calgary land office. 

One Wedne.-iday fifty homesteads were taken out in the 
Edmonton land office— 8,000 acres placed in the hands of 
actual settlers in a single day at a time of the year when 
the homestead rush is generally considered clo.sed. 

There have been similar rushes at Moose Jaw and elsewhere. 
Not Grain Alone.— The wonderful production of grain — 
wheat, oats, barley, flax, and rye— in Central Canada has 
aroused the attention of the world, and throughout the 
United States the interest has grown so that 125,000 Ameri- 
ranii took up their residence in Canada during the year 1910. 
lJut grain has not been the only source of revenue for the 
prairie farmers. It is calculated that in 1910 the farmer's 
revenue was increased by 22 million dollars by sales of pota- 
toes, turnips, and other roots, hay, cattle, hog.s, sheep, 
dairy products, and poultr>-. The wheat crop marketed to 



other quarters— and even larger areas, showing that they 
have progressed in obtaining more land, while others still 
have stuck to the homestead quarter and this year are 
marketing as much as $2,000 worth of grain; and often 
nearer $3,000. 

Is Central Canada Reliable in Its Production?— Experience 
is the best guide, and tlie thousands of farmers who are becom- 
ing well off in the Canadian West and who are sending for 
their friends and relatives to come to share the West's pros- 
perity, offer the best answer to the question. But there 
are figures which demonstrate the matter very effectually. 
They are the figures regarding the actual quantities of grain 
shipped via the various railways and inspected by Govern- 
ment officers, in connection with the shipping. The farmer 
has to retain large quantities of grain for seed and feed and 
other purposes, but he ships out his surplus, and the surplus 
it is that brings him in the cash. There is no guessing or 
estimating in regard to the quantity of grain shipped and 
inspected, and while one year may be better than another 
the reliability of the soil in the matter of productivity is 
shown by the steadily growing figures of grain inspections. 
The following are the official figures (in bushels) in regard 
to grain inspected at Winnipeg and other prairie points during 
a period of years: 

1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 

Wheat 39,786,600 64,619,100 73,140,920 53,389,350 74,055,450 
Oats.. 2,7.36,000 8,6.52,000 1 4,935,.500 lti.761 ,600 21 996,009 
Barley 486,000 1,628,400 2,715,600 2,635,200 3,579,600 
Flax 288,000 503,000 908,000 1,617,000 2,208,000 
Rye 9,600 26,400 10,800 20,400 

speitz 2,000 £.^0 ij^^o 

Total, 43ls0, 600 TMl^.lOO 91,727,620 74,415,150 101,859,450 138,064.185 



1910 
94,922,385 
34,944.800 
4,663,200 
3,571,000 
22,800 




While Grain Growing has been Given the Most Attention, Stock Raising 
has a Promising Future 



CANADA WEST 



9 



Will You Buy, Rent, or Homestead? — The question is 
one t!uit Canadian Ciovernmcnt oiHcials are frequently asked, 
especially in ttie homes of a family of boys who have become 
interested in Central Canada. If the young man has 
grit and inexperience let him homestead. Treating this 
subject in a newspaper article, a correspondent very tersely 
says, "He will survive the ordeal and gain his experience at 
less cost." 

Another has ample knowledge of farmine practice, experieuce in farm 
management, but lacks pluck and staying power and the capacity to endure. 
The fooil for thought, and opportunity for action provided by the inan- 
agement of an improved farm would be just the stimulus required to make 
him <«ttle into harness and "work out his own salvation in fear and 
trembling." 

Many men make excellent, progressive, broad-gauge farmers, by rentmg 
or buving an improved farm in a settled district and keeping in touch 
with more advanced thought and methods. Their immediate financial 
success may not be so great ; their ultimate success will be much greater, 
for they have been saved from narrow-gauge ways and withering at 
the top. 

Let the boy take the route that appeals to him. Don't force him to 
homestead if he pines to rent. Don't try to keep him at home if home- 
steading looks good to him. The thing to remember is that success may be 
achieved by any one of the three routes. If the foundation is all right, hard 
work the method, and thoroughness the motto, it makes httle difference 
what road is taken — whether homesteading, buying, or renting — Central 
Canada is big enough, and good farming f)rofitable enough. 

Spreading All Over the Plains, — A correspondent of the 
Toronto (Ont.) Globe, whose study of Central Canada estab- 
ishes liim as an authority, deals with some of the conditions 
there — and no apology 
is offered for tlie re- 
production of an ex- 
tract interesting to 
those seeking new 
homes: 

The newcomers are being 
distributed to the four 
corners of the Prairie 
Provinces, and many are 
locating in British Colum- 
bia. Each is more or less 
familiar with the general 
characteristics of the par- 
ticular section in which he 
settles, and he takes no 
chances. Relatives or 
friends may be already 
established, and he has 
come with the idea of join- 
ing ihem. If it be a case 
of going into a new- district, 
the 'lecisionto locate there 
is probably based on the 
information and experience 
gained during a "prospect- 
ing " tour. The head of the 
family or one of the boys 
ha? taken time >o travel 
through Central Canada, 
and has made close observ- 
ation of the conditions. 
The possibility of disap- 
pointment is reduced to a 
minimum by this means, 
and the results are beneficial 
an I encouraging to the 
in iivi lual settlers 

No Established Religion. — In religious matters and politi- 
cally Canada is the freest country in the world. There is 
no established religion and each person is at liberty to wor- 
ship as he pleases. Living is cheap; climate good; educa- 
tion and land free. On most of the prairies there are no 
trees to be cut, and virgin soil can be broken the first year. 

MONEY QUALIFICATIONS 

A few broad general suggestions miglit be made to the 
settlers who come in with varying capital at their command. 

The Man Who Has Less Than $300. —This man had 
better work for wages for the first year. He can either hire 
out to established farmers or find employment on railway 
construction work. During the year, opportunity may open 
up for him to take up his free grant or make the first pay- 
ment on a quarter-section that he would like to purchase. 

The Man Who Has $600,— Get hold of your 160-acre 
free homestead ai once, build your shack, and proceed with 
your homestead duties. During the six months that you 
are free to ab.sent yourself from your homestead, hire out to 
some successful farmer and get enough to tide you over the 
other half of the year which you must spend in residence 




A Homestead near Edmonton Alberta 



upon the land. When you have put in six months' 
residence during each of these years and have complied 
with the improvement conditions required by the Land 
Act, you become the ab.solute owner of the homestead. 

The Man Who Has $1,000. — Either homestead a farm 
or purchase one on the installment plan, and get 
to work at once. A small house and out buildings will be 
required, with horses or oxen, a plough, a wagon, etc. Work- 
ing out in the harvest season will be needed to bring in 
money to tide over the winter and get the crop sown in 
good condition. As the crop grows, opportunity is given 
to make the liouse comfortable, to look around and plan ahead. 

If the settler locates early in the season he may get in a 
crop of potatoes or oats in May or early June. 

The adaptable and friendly man going into Canada will 
find a welcome awaiting him. There is room for everybody. 
The man already established, the railwaj's, and the Govern- 
ment are equally anxious to secure further immigration of 
the right kind. The new man is not looked upon as an 
intruder but as a producer of new wealth, an enricher 
of the commonwealth. The new man should buy his tools 
as he needs them. Until he has more than thirty acres under 
crop he can work witfi a neighbour, in exchange for 

the services of a 
binder. He may nut 
need to build a granary 
for two or three years. 
A cow is a good invest- 
ment at the beginning, 
and a vegetable garden 
easily pays its own way. 

What $1,200 Will 
Buy. — Xo farmer 
should come expecting 
to make a homestead 
pay its own way the 
first year. He needs 
buildings, an equip- 
ment, and money for 
the maintenance of 
himself and family, 
until his first harvest 
can be garnered. After 
securing his land and 
putting up his build- 
ings, 81,200 will give 
him a fairly good 
equipment to begin 
with. This will proba- 
bly be expended as 
under: 

1 team of good horses S360 00 

1 harvester 150 00 

4 milchcows at S40(£8) 160 00 

1 seeder 90 00 

1 strong wagon ' "0 00 

4 hogs at S15 (£3) 60 00 

4 sheep at .S5 (£1) 20 00 

1 set strong harness 35 00 

1 rough sleigh 25 00 

1 disc harrow 25 00 

1 breaking plough 25 00 

1 mowing machine 60 00 

1 stubble plough 20 00 

1 harrow .... 20 00 

Other smaller tools 40 00 

Barnyard fowls 40 00 

Total .SI, 200 00 

PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE 

The mean temperature during the three summer months 
in Prairie Canada is about the same, whether one reads 
it on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway or far 
north toward t!;e Arctic Circle In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
and Alberta, fully 5G per cent of the year's rainfall comes 
to the farmer in "the summer, when it does most good. 

April on these prairies is truly a spring month and very 
often spring seeding is completed before the beginning of 
May. This statement is proven by the records which 
give Winnipeg an average daily maximum temperature in 
April of 47°: Calgary, 53°; Edmonton, 52°; and Medi- 
cine Hat, 58°. 



Dotted lines at right angle show unsurveyed 




10 For Map of Northern Manitoba see pages 14 and 15. 



liiiuN; .-olid lines show surveyed lands. 




I si 





" f"?^!' Central and Sonthern 

_j MANITOBA 



Scale, 



iniD. ncs-i 




!■ statute Miles. 22= I Inch 

I'l r, 10 20 30 



Cc; yrl^ht, I'.TO, by Rand, McSally & Co. " 
C..i.\ ri;ht, Ifn. bj Rsnd, McXallj S Co. 

!• Canadian Pacific i 



Jl Canadian Northern 

jl Grand Trunk Pacific .r-=-- 



.'.< I', ilar 

^" ; -i s 



Vulli-,-^ Icel amllc Ulv er, 
17 



Broad Valley ' 

Hamrlik, 1^ 




!• Great Northern 



Cha t lie! Jo I 
Stonj- Hill j 




igi KicuzbuiS 





;1 : 1Ft':-K.J ) 



viue r 



cWoonona 



obnie Doo) 



Woodlands' H'^h t 





- SI. George 



Lao a,, Eon'_«^, 
Dlicad i 



Ce.lcQnrt^««L. Marquette 




KockwooJiiT- 1 




31 


32 


33 


34 1 


33 


36 


30 
W_ 


29 


28 


27 


26 


■2o 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 




IS 


IT 


16 


15 


14 


113 




8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


6 


5 











. 1 br>*;r^ 



IT: 



Lowe Fai 






. •CUT Wc«toort j- Y<: ( ^ 



Fredenstbttl 1 ■ Jrbalikal 




10 11 



^^S^TTT^u 10 \; 




rownships in lull black lines have been surveyed; broken lines are unsurveycd, 11 



MANITOBA 



l^Ianitoba, the most easterly of the three Central Provinces, 
lies in the centre of the North American continent and mid- 
way between the J'acific and Atlantic oceans, its southern 
boundary running down to the 49th parallel, which separates 
it from the United States. Manitoba is larger than Ireland, 
Scotland, and Wales combined, its area covering 74,000 
square miles, or a')0ut 47 million acres, about one-eighth of 
which perhaps is water. If a family of five were to be 
placed on every half->ection of Manitoba, over 600,000 
souls would be actually living on the land. 

Education.— The value placed by Manitobans on popular 
education is evidenced in the fact that the expenditure on 
schools is the largest drain on the public funds. All schools 
below the grade of high schools are frec^to children between 
the ages of five and fifteen years, and high schools in all the 
cities and larger towns are free to resident pupils. Winnipeg 
and Brandon maintain colleges of a very high standard, 
and children of all classes attend them. Two sections of 
and in each township are set apart, the income from the sales 
of which is applied to the support of free schools. This 
also applies to Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

An experimental farm at Brandon educates the farming 
population, and authentic records of the results of practical 




work in agricultural experiment are furnished to farmer.s free. 
Dairy schools, farmers' institutes, live-stock associations, 
and other agricultural organizations are also available. 

Rivers and Lakes. — The Province is served by the 
natural drainage system making into Hudson Bay by 
way of Lake Winnipeg. The rivers run from the eastern 
and western sides to the lower lands in the centre, and 
practically all of ithe drainage of the Province reaches 
the sea by the rivers making out of the natural reservoir 
of Lake Winnipeg. The chief rivers are the Red, Assini- 
boine, Winnipeg, and Pembina, all of which have important 
tributaries, except the Winnipeg. The rivers are not rapid, 
but there is force enough in the Winnipeg to supply electric 
power for tramways and industrial purposes for many 
cities us large as A\'innipeg. 

Telephones. — The Government of Manitoba owns and 
opfrat'j.s the telephone system of the Province. Tliere are 
now over 5,000 miles of long distance lines, and about 
9,000 rural sub.scribers. 

Forest Wealth. — For those wlio love timber-covered 
areas, Manitoba can point to a strip along its east boundary, 
approximately eighty miles wide, of spruce, birch, and tama- 
rack, which extends into the extreme east of the Province 
from the wooded lands of New Ontario: Large sawmills 
arc e.-jtabii-shed. In Western Manitoba are fore.st areas, and 
timbered di.strictg exist on the Turtle Mountains and the 
Brandon Hills. The true forest persists in Northwestern 
Manitoba as far as the Duck Mountains I rom all these 



points quantities of lumber, fence posts, and firewood are 
sent to the prairie settlers, and the rivers and lakes are skirted 
by a plentiful tree growth. 

Soil and Surface. — The surface of Manitoba is not a flat, 
bare stretch, a "bald-headed prairie." A large part of the 
land, especially in the south, is flat, being, geologists say, 
the bed of a wide, prehistoric lake. But even in the south- 
west the land rises into wooded hills, and in the southeast, 
close to the Lake-of-the-Woods country, there is a genuine 
forest. Down through the heart of the Province stretch two 
great lake chains. Lake Winnipeg and lakes Winnipegosis 
and Manitoba. These receive as tribute the waters of the 
Saskatchewan and Assiniboine west, and discharge through 
the Nelson River to Hudson Bay. Sloping to the 
west from the Lake Manitoba plain is . a range of hills 

known as the Duck Mountains, 
Riding Mountains, and the Por- 
cupine Hills. These hills are 
modest in their height, have a 
gentle slope, and in no way inter- 
fere with the fact that almost the 
whole land surface of Manitoba 
west of its great lakes is ready for 
cultivation. Manitoba soil is a 
deep rich loam, inexhaustible in its 
productiveness; it is essentially 
agricultural. Th^re are 25| million 
acres of land surveyed, about one- 
fifth of which was under crop 
in 1910. 

Climate. — Manitoba enjoys sun- 
shine the entire year. The au- 
tumns are long and' delightful, 
ploughing weather continuing 
until, or into, November. Winter 
lasts three or four months. Yearly 
precipitationis21. 5 inches. Seeding 
begins about the middle of April. 
For man and beast and plant Mani- 
toba is a wonderfully healthy 
place. Manitoba's surplus pro- 
duct of wheat over and above her home consumption 
is largely sent to Eastern Canada and to Europe. In addi- 
tion to wheat, great crops of rye, flax, hay, peas, and potatoes 
are produced, and also garden truck. i 

Railroads. — The growing and marketing of grain are the. 
chief industries of Manitoba, and the extension of the railways 
goes hand in hand with the development of the land. The 
railway mileage of the Province is 3,505, and few 
farmers are more than eight or ten miles from a railway. 

Game and Fish.— In 1909, Manitoba's fishery output 
represented a value of over one niilliou dollars, most of this 
being realized from the lucrative whitefish. Wild ducks, 
geese, and swans haunt the lakes and rivers, while on the 
prairies are flocks of prairie chickens. On the hills and in 
the woodland moose and deer abound, and there are wolf, 
bear, lynx, fox, marten, beaver, and other fur-bearing animals. 

Available Homesteads.— Manitoi^a has million acres of 
land available for free homesteading, located east of the Red 
River, and between lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba, also west 
of Lake Manitoba and in the newly opened districts along 
the line of the Canadian Northern Railway. To those who 
appreciate the picturesque advantage of tree growth, these 
districts make strong appeal. If the timber is a light scrub, 
it is easily removed; if, on the other hand, the forest is heavy, 
it richly repays the cost of clearing. Creeks, lakes, and rivers 
abound, while water for domestic purpo.ses can generally be 
secured by sinking wells to a moderate depth. It is easy to 
realize that Manitoba lands as they produce their crops from 




fhis F.irin Was Uiibiokun I'l 



MANITOBA 



13 




Cutting Grain in the Park District of Manitoba. Compare the Height of the Grain with 
the Height of the Horses 



year t o year are st ea d i 1 y 
advancing in value ; 
while the interest 
accrues regularly, the 
principal is also 
increasini;. 

Beef Raising and 
Dairying. — During tlie 
winter of 1110S-09, 
about 25,000 liead of 
cattle were fattened, 
and the number of 
milch cows was 173,546 
as compared with 
110,lK)0 five years pre- 
vious. The dairy prod- 
uce (butter) for 1910 

was valued at li million dollars; the cheese output was about 
SIOO.OOO— showing that dairying is a very important industry; 
good prices are obtained; the quality is excellent in colour and 
flavour. Abundant grasses are rich in the fattening proper- 
ties essential to raising cattle and producing butter and 
cheese. Government dairy schools promote these industries. 

Mixed Farming General. — Grain growing has given Mani- 
toba agricultural pre-eminence in the eyes of tiie world, but 
the leaven of mixed farming is gradually and surely permeat- 
ing the minds of farmers; there is scarcely one but has liis herd 
of cattle or his flock of sheep. His hogs are fattening for 
market, and poultry proves valuable as a source of revenue. 
Prices of these may fluctuate, but never can a farmer become 
overstocked with any one or more of them. 

Businesslike Farming. — Nowhere on the continent, more 
.than'in Manitoba, has farming advanced to the dignity of a 
thoroughly businesslike occupation Here the farmer works, 
not merely for a living, but, rather, for a handsome profit. 
Instances are frequent where large areas under wheat have 
given a clear profit of over S12 an acre. .\11 the labour of 
ploughing, seeding, harvesting, and marketing can be hired 
done at about -ST. 50 per acre. Even allowing S8, it is a poor 
year that will not yield a handsome margin over this. 

Winnipeg. — Winnipeg is a remarkable city. In 1870, it 
was a frontier trading post of the Hudson Bay Company 
with a total population of 215 souls. An official census taken 
to-day would find a population of over 150,000. The 
reason for this wonderful advancement is readily found in 
the harvests of wheat ripening on the rich prairie lands tribu- 
tary to this "Buckle of the Wheat Belt." The wide boule- 
varded streets, substantial bank buildings, crowded railroad, 
depots, all tell insistently the same story of prosperity. The 
city owns its public parks, quarries, waterworks, street light- 
ing systems, and asphalt pfants. Its bank clearings in 1910 
were .S953,515,2S1 , as compared with .$770,642,322 in 1909, 
occupying the seventh place in the cities of North ^Araerica. 
The post office here last year issued money orders to the sum 
of about million dollars. There are 115 churches and forty 
schools, four live daily newspapers, with forty weekly and 
monthly publications. The building records for the city for 
the four years ending November, 1910, show that 37 million 
dollars were spent during that period. In 1^)10 the new 
buildings constructed were valued at 15^ million dollars, 
67 per cent increase over 1909. The factories employ 14,000 
bands, with an output exceeding nearly 37 million dollars. 
Twenty-trwo railway tracks radiate from the city. 



St. Boniface, the 
seat of the Roman 
Catholic archdiocese 
of St. Boniface, adjoins 
and is partly sur- 
rounded by the busi- 
ness section of the 
city of Winnipeg, esti- 
mated population, 
13,000. 

Brandon. — Brandon, 
the second city in the 
Province, is situated at 
the junction of the 
Assiniboine with the 
Little Saskatchewan, 
on the main line of 



the Canadian Pacific Railway, some 130 miles west of Win- 
nipeg. Seven branch railways make in here. Grain eleva- 
tors, flour mills, and machine shops, together with the whole- 
sale houses and fourteen branch banks, show the solid 
nature of the business of this city. Brandon is an educational 
centre with a college and high school of which a city ten 
times its size might well be proud. On the outskirts of 
the city is the Dominion Experimental Farm, a valuable 
institution admirably run. 

Portage la Prairie. — Portage la Prairie, population 6,500, 
enjoys splendid railway facilities. Several industries are 
established here. It owns a beautiful park, has a fine educa- 
tional system, including a collegiate institute, and supports 
many churches and fraternal societies. Portage Plains have 
been cropped for thirty consecutive years without a failure. 

Selkirk is a distributing point of supplies for points on 
the shores of Lake Winnipeg. 

Carberry and Morden are flourishing railway towns in the 
heart of fine wheat-growing sections. Minnedosa, Neepawa, 
Dauphin, Carman, Virden, and Souris also are centres of 
notable grain-growing districts, and important railroad towns. 

Scores of towns now developing afford openings for those 
desiring business opportunities, each with its mills and 
warehouses for wheat. Among these centres may be named 
Manitou, Birtle, Emerson, Gretna, Wawanesa, Somerset 
Baldur, Deloraine, Melita, Rapid City, Hamiota, Gladstone, 
Killarney, Hartney, Stonewall, Boissevain, Elkhorn, Gilbert 
Plains, Pilot Mound, Winkler, and Plum Coulee. 

Important Facts. — In 1910 the estimated amount spent 
on farm buildings was 3^ million dollars as compared with 
24 million dollars the previous year. 

■ GROWTH OF MANITOBA 

1891 1908 1909 1910 

Population 152,506 462,569 466,268 497,000 

Horses 86,735 230,926 237,161 232,725 

Milch cows 82,710 173,546 167,442 146,841 

Other horned cattle ...147,984 357,988 333,752 397.261 

Sheen . • 35,838 29,265 29,074 32,223 

Hogs.'. 54,177 192,489 172,374 176,212 

Cultivated fanns 45,380 

According to Provincial Government figures there were 
5,122,877 acres under crop last year, of which about 270,000 
acres wer ! ploughed under on account of drought in Southern 
Central districts. In the fall of 1910 there was prepared for 
seed 3,527,528 acres of land, over U million more than last 
year. The following tables give the acreage, average, and total 
vicld of wheat, oats, barley, and flax for the last five years. 



WHEAT 

Year Acreage Average Total .\creage 
Yield Yield 

1906 ..3,141,537 19.49 61,250,413.4 1,155,961 

1907 . 2,789,553 14.22 39,688,266 6 1,213,.596 

1908 .2.850.640 17.23 49,252,539 1,216.632 

1909 . .2,642,111 17.33 45,774,707.7 1,373,683 

1910 ..2,962,187 13.475 39,916,391.7 1,486,436 



OATS 
.\verage Total 



BARLEY 
Acreage Average Total 
Yiold Yield YieW Yield 

43 ,85 50,692,977 .7 474,242 36 96 17,.532,553 .9 

34 8 42,140,744.7 649,.i70 25.7 16,752,724.3 

36.8 44,686,043 658,441 27.54 18,1.35,7.57 

37.1 50,983,0.56.2 601,008 27.31 16,416,634 

28 7 .42,647.766 ^24,644 .20.75—12,960,0.38.7 



FLAX 
Acreage Average 
Yield 
18,790 14.6 
25,915 12 25 
50,187 11.18 
20,635 12.26 
41,002 9.97 



Total 
Yield 

274,330 
317,347 .6 
502,206 
253,636 .9 
410,928.7 



Dotted lines at right angle show unsurveyed 




lands; solid Lines show surveyed lands. 




SASKATCHEWAN 



Saskatchewan, the middle one of the Prairie Provinces, 
is a huge rectangle extending from the 49th to the 60th 
parallel, with an area as big as that of France, and twice the 
size of the British Isles. Saskatchewan has a southern base 
of 390 miles bordering on the United States, and its length 
from north to south is 700 miles. Total land area 250,650 
square miles; water area 8,318 square miles. 

River Ways. — The chief rivers are the North Saskatchewan, 
Soui'i Saskatchewan, Qu'Appelle, and Carrot. The North 
and South Saskatchewan both rise in the RoekyMountains and 
each has a general easterly trend. The Red Deer flows 
into the South Saskatchewan, about 150 miles north of 
the United States boundary. The South Saskatchewan 
runs east nearly half way across the Province, then turns 
north and enters the North Saskatchewan River a little 
east of the town of Prince Albert. The South Saskatchewan 
River, with the Qu'Appelle, intersects the Province from 
east to west, the Qu'Appelle being noted for its scenery and 
the excellent character of the country which it drains. The 
Carrot rises south of Prince Albert and ruiis an approximate 
parallel line to the North Saskati-'hewan, into which it flows 
near "The Pas," a Hudson Bay Company trading post. 

Surface and Settlement.— The first tide of homeseekers 
into Saskatchewan flowed along the channel provided by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and each new railroad since 
built ffas been followed close at heel by eager, earnest land- 
seekers. So it is that one finds to-day prosperous settlements 
on both sides of the tracks of the Canadian Northern, the 
Canadian Pacific, and the Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Climate.— It has been demonstrated by years of experience 
that the climate of Saskatchewan is suited to the production 
of the best grain, vegetables, and live stock in the world, 
and that it is eminently healthful and invigorating. There 
are a number of features pertaining to the climate of Sas- 
katchewan that combine to make it a very plea.sant one. 
The elevation above the sea, which is from 1,500 to 3,000 
feet, insuring clear and dry atmosphere; the comparatively 
light precipitation, adequate, however, for all practical pur- 
poses; the equable temperature during the winter months 
and the light snowfall, the very large proportion of bright 
sunshine, the summer breeze, and the clear pure air — these 
are features of the climate of Saskatchewan that may be 
emphasized. Nor is there ever the devastation by storm 
or flood, earthquake or cyclone, as is reported with such 
awful frequency from other parts of the world. 

Precipitation occurs principally during the summer 
months. The total rainfall annually is not greater than is 
required to bring the crops to maturity; and the greater part 
of it occurs during the months in which it is most required. 
June and July are the wettest months in the year, although 
May and August are only moderately dry. Two-thirds of 
the annual precipitation occurs in the form of rajn, between 
April and September. 

The temperature during the summer .season rises frequently 
to about 100 degrees; but the heat is tempered by a never- 
failing breeze, and the nights 
are cool and pleasant after even 
the hottest days. The num- 
ber of hours of sunlight is 
greater here during the sum- 
mer months than it is in more 
soutliern latitudes; and the 
clear, healthful atmosphere i.* 
particularly refreshing and 
invigorating. 

The jiutimin season in Sas- 
l-. ntr ' ( v.- ii) i- y.r<->l,;ibl V un.-^ur- 



passed in any other part of the world. The rare atmosphere, 
perhaps, is never so pleasing as at that time, when the warm 
bright days, following niglits during which the thermometer 
dips slightly below the freezing point, produce an exhilaration 
that makes life more than mere existence. 

The winter, which usually begins about or shortly before 
the beginning of December and. continues without interrup- 
tion until the middle or end of March, is undoubtedly cold; 
but, thanks to the aid of comfortable houses and suitable 
clothing and furs, it inspires no dread and, indeed, is not 
unpleasant. The infrequent occurrence during that time 
of thaws or rain, the absence of humidity, the large propor- 
tion of bright sunshine, and the stillness of the atmosphere 
when the weather is coldest, all tend to make the winter 
weather healthful and even enjoyable. "Blizzards" or 
severe snowstorms occasionally occur; but they are not as a 
rule accompanied by extreme temperatures. The infre- 
quency of thaws and the equability of the temperature cause 
a noticeable absence of pneumonia and those kindred troubles 
so mucli dreaded in more moist and changeable climates. 

In an ordinary season, the winter ends about the middle 
or end of March, and in a few of the last twenty years the 
snow disappeared before the end of February. Grain 
has been sown about the middle of March, but that is 
exceptional, and usually seeding is in full swing in April. 

In the ranching district, west and south of Swift Current, 
the Chinook winds occur at intervals during the winter. 
These warm, dry winds blowing from the southwest cause 
the snow to disappear rapidly; and as it rhelts under the 
influence of the sun and atmosphere, the moisture seems to 
be evaporated. On tl.is account the southwestern part of 
the Province is such an ideal ranching district. In that 
vicinity the stock winters well on the open range. 

Saskatchewan Crops. — Saskatchewan is essentially a 
wheat-growing country. It leads all the other provinces in 
wheat production already, though only a comparatively small 
portion of its cultivable area has yet been brought under the 
plough, and in 1910 in this respect it was only overtopped 
by the State of Minnesota with its 94 million bushels. 
Saskatchewan had 72,666,399, exceeding by 4 million bushels 
estimated early in the season, or 579, S34 more tlian in 
1909. The crop districts into which the Province is divided 
for statistical purposes have a total area of 86,826,240 acres. 
The total area under wheat in 1910 was 4,664,834 acres 
and the total area under grain of all kinds (including 
wheat) was 7,382,063 acres, or 8.5 per cent of the area of the 
crop districts. The acreage of crops of all kinds in 1909 was 
7,016,272, compared with 5,981,802 acres in 1908. The 
Saskatchewan Government has estimated the value of the 
1910 grain crops, at .1!82,507,748. Adding to this, the value 
of the live stock, .1103,248,429, there is a total of grain and 
live stock for the Province of 185)/^ million dollars owned by 
86,000 farmers, or over .$1,800 per farmer. In addition to this 
tliere is an enormous sum for roots, fodder, milk and its products. 
In 1900 the Province had 13,000 farms under cultivation; 




Threshing 32 Biishpis to the Acre from the Stook in Saskatchewan 
16 



SASKATCHEWAN 



17 



in nine years there ha hccn an increase of over 600 per cent. 

The returns show that improper or insufficient preparation 
of the soil to retain moisture was a more important factor 
than the lack of rainfal. in accounting for last year's decrease 
of production. It is generally admitted that where approved 
scientific methods of farming were pursued, profitable and 
altogether more satisfactory crops were harvested. The 
precipitation throughout piost of the Province was sufficient 
to have effected good results in most of the principal crop 
areas if these methods had been more generally applied. 

Potatoes and field roots were a satisfactory crop, showing 
considerably increased production and average yield over 
190;); 6,174,302 bushels of the tubers, or an increase of 
37S,302 bushels, and 2,-560,502 bushels of field roots, or 
744,715 bushels in excess of 1909, were grown. The hay 
crop, natural and domestic, has been placed at 1,590,956 
tons and forage crops at 59,142 tons. Roots and forage crops 
for 1910 are valued at 9}^ million dollars. 

Live Stock. — The live-stock industry in Saskatchewan was, 
until the last rush of settlement, the principal industry of 
the Province. Now, however, in all parts of the Province 
excepting the southwest corner, a district comprising, 
approximately, 25,000 square miles, grain growing occupied 
the most prominent place in the farmer's operations. Where 
grain growing has not yet become general, and large flocks 
of sheep remain on the open range, ranching is still of prime 
importance. In the rest of the Province, south of the 55tli 
parallel of latitude, grain growing is the preferred business, 
and live-stock industry takes a secondary place. The dis- 
tricts especially adapted to raising live stock are in the 
great "park belt" or semi-wooded area north of the Yorkton 
branch of the Canadian Pacific and the 'main line of the 
Canadian Northern Railway. Here the land is less easily 
broken up and the temptation to risk all in a wheat crop 
is reduced. Large numbers of cattle are raised here. 

In the southwest large flocks of sheep are seen on the range. 
The swine industry has developed rapidly with increase in 
settlement. Elevator screenings and low-grade grain furnish 
cheap and satisfactory food, and the expansion of grain 
growing will furnish more impetus to this industry. 

There has in recent years developed a great demand for 
farm power. Steam and gasoline engines aid the prairie 
farmer — but the time has not yet come for these to supersede 
the horse. Many carloads of work horses are imported. The 
average price is about 8400 per team; but sound, well- 
trained horses, weighing 3,000 to 3,200 pounds per pair, will 
bring from 8400 to S500 at five or six years of age. 

Dairying. — Natural conditions in certain parts of the Prov- 
ince are eminently suitable for mixed farming and dairying. 

Locally there is an excellent market for butter. Most of 
the creameries are under governmental supervision, the 
.Minister of .\griculture, through the Superintendent of 
Dairying, supervising all business transactions with the 
exception of cream delivery. A reasonable estimate places 
the output of butter for 1910, at 861,000 pounds, valued 
at 8206,640. The output in 1909 was 571,000 pounds, value 
$133,842. Adjacent districts to those in which creameries 
are now being operated, will, without doubt, follow dairying 
as their chief occupations; and rightly so, because of the 
favourable natural facilities which with intelligent application 
on the part of the settler makes success easily possible. 

Lumbering. — North of Prince Albert, which is the centre 
at present of the lumber industry, and east of that city, lum- 
bering is extensively carried on. In the northern forest the 
timber is spruce, both white and black, larch or tamarack, 
jack pine, aspen or white poplar, balsam or black poplar, 
and white birch. Prince Albert has four lumber mills. 

Education. — School districts are established by the Govern- 




IN SASKATCHEWAN 
Disking and Harrowing at the Same Time. Farmers are in this Way Able 
to Cultivate Large Areas with a Limited Amount of Help 



ment, but maintained and managed by the resident rate- 
payers of the district. The maximum size of rural districts 
is limited to twenty-five square miles, but the majority 
comprise from sixteen to twenty. A district must have four 
persons actually resident therein, who would be liable to 
assessment, and at least twelve children between the ages of 
five and sixteen years, inclusive. The schools are sustained 
by provincial aid and also by local rates. Except in special 
cases where qualified teachers cannot be obtained, every 
teacher must hold a certificate of qualification granted by 
the department of education. A university, supported and 
controlled by the Province, has been established at 
Saskatoon. A department of Saskatchewan's new univer- 
sity will be a college of agriculture. 

Government and Other Telephones. — The Government of 
the Province operates the telephone system. This com- 
prised in 1910 about 1,300 miles of long-distance lines, 42 
exchanges, and upwards of 5,000 subscribers. In addition, 
the Government pursues an active policy of stimulating the 
organization of local rural companies by giving to such 
companies as a bonus all the poles required for their lines. 
During 1910, about £60,000 worth of telephone poles were 
distributed gratis to farmers' telephone companies. As a 
result of this policy there were in existence at the close of 
1910 seventy-one such rural companies with a total capitali- 
zation in excess of 8250,000. These rural companies are 
connected with local exchanges and toll offices wherever 
possible, and represent 1,900 pole miles serving upwards 
of 2,000 farmers. 

SOUTHEASTERN SASKATCHEWAN 

One may include in Southeastern Saskatchewan that sec- 
tion which lies between Manitoba on the east and the third 
meridian on the west and extending some distance north of 
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It has more 
rainfall than that farther west and less wood than the portion 
lying north. In character and productiveness of soil, South- 
eastern Saskatchewan is a continuation of Manitoba, but 
contains more prairie area. 

Railways. — To the incomer, the ever-present wheat ele- 
vator in this section tells its own story of soil fertility. Very 
few farms are more than a few liours' drive from a railway 
.station. The Canadian Northern's Brandon- Regina branch 
connects with the Regina Prince Albert branch at Regina, 
the capital of t'ne Province, giving this road a northern as 
•well as a ioutherr outlet. Settlement along these lines is 



sovthet:?? 
saskatchewan' 



Surveyed land 




For Map of Central Saskatchewan sec pages 'i'i and 23. 



Iiowii In oolor. 



SOUTHERN 
SASKATCHEWAN 



— v-tHSf* ^ 



Bfiivi'j.-lijiuFf 



Lani 




I'Si^rj^liTl ioT 






:!1 -M Si 31 35 30 



;» 29 2S 2: 2G 2 



19 20 21 ii 23 24 



; I 4 3 



IS 17 IC 15 14 13 



9 10 11 12 






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24 



SiRoblin 



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fairy Hill 




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ate I 1 








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•.ipM-ipotSoofheinSaikal'^wrn I ill'' Co ryriglt. 1911. VRand, H)J McXally & C3\ Copyriel't.^W. by iQ-; RaDd.\Icyally & Co. \| 1 



19 



20 



THE LAST BEST WEST 



continuous, the land tributary being almost invariably good. 
The main line of the Canadian Pacific crosses from east to 
west with branches to different points, while two lines south 
and others to the north parallel it. 

Soil Almost Inexhaustible. — The possibilities of South- 
eastern Saskatchewan cannot be better shown than by in- 
stancing the results of tests made at the Experimental Farm at 
Indian Head. A dozen distinct varieties of wheat, sown in mid 
April, were cut in 130 days and yielded an average of "forty- 
three bushels to the, acre. Six reasons may be given for the 
exceptionally favourable conditions awaiting the grower of 
wheat in Saskatchewan: 1. Tliesoil is almost inexhaustible in 
its fertility. 2. The climate brings the wheat plant to fruition 
very quicky. 3. The northern latitude gives the wheat more 
sunshine during the period of growth than is furnished 
by the districts farther south. 4. Cyclones never occur. 
5. There is utter absence of rust. 6. Insect foes are unknown. 

SOUTHWESTERN 
SASKATCHEWAN 

During the year 1908 the 
Government opened up for 
homesteading and pre-emption 
all available lands in South 
western Saskatchewan. The 
demand for these is great 
and there is market for the 
adjoining acres held by railway 
and land companies. North 
of the South Saskatchewan 
River extends an almost level 
fertile plain. This is easily 
reached from the Canadian 
Northern's Regina- Prince Albert 
branch and from the Moose 
Jaw-Lacombe line of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway. The 

Canadian Northern has selected a portion of these lands as 
their grant from tlie Goveinment and holds them open for 
sale to settlers. 

Along the "Soo," a branch of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way from Moose Jaw to Portal (which connects St. Paul 
and Minneapolis with these wheat lands), the district is to a 
great extent occupied by settlers from the United States. 

Tramping Lake district has been the Alecca for farmers 
of discernment the past three or four years, and they grew 
grain and marketed cattle even when farming a hundred 
miles away from the nearest railway. Their success caused 
a steady influx of settlers to the deep soil and rolling prairie 
of this .section. Served now by the Canadian Pacific, and 
the Grand Trunk Pacific, this district is one of Saskatche- 
wan's most promising corners. 

Between Regina and Moose Jaw the country is mostly 
occupied by prosperous farmers. In the neigh bourliood 
of Moose Jaw mixed farming as well as grain raising is carried 
on with success. North and northwest, towards the Saskatche- 
wan, there are large settlements of contented and pros- 
perous farmers. Recent surveys south and southwest have 
opened a tract of land available for homesteading, and the 
e.slablishment of a land office at Moose Jaw makes it easy 
to inspect the land and secure speedy entry. 

Maple Creek district is an important stock centre and 
shipping point for the big ranches to the west and south, 
some of the best sheep, cattle, and horses in Canada being 
rai.sed on the succulent grass that here obtains. Here as 
elsewhere, the wheat grower and mixed farmer are treading 
on the heels of the ranchman and the cow-puncher. 




The Education of the Young is carefully provided for 



West of Swift Current to the Alberta boundary herds of 
cattle roam and largely find for themselves. Snowfall is 
light and winters so mild that hardy animals graze through 
the whole year. The Swift Current district is thickly cov- 
ered with buffalo grass, which, when its top dries out, is still 
green and growing at the roots, affording winter pasture. 
The chinook winds from the Pacific are strongly felt as far 
east as Swift Current. Grain growing is being successfully 
carried on both to the north and south. 

What is known as the Goose Lake district, southwest of 
Saskatoon, has occupied the attention of a large number of 
homesteaders and land purchasers during the past t'lree 
years. These people have gone away beyond the end of 
steel, and opened up a magnificent stretch of land, all 
the way to Calgary. Railway lines extended into this district 
have at once begun the hauling out of wheat, which has proved 
an abundant crop. In 1908, no towns, no elevators, and 

wheat areas comparatively 
small, becoming smaller in ex- 
tent as one got farther from 
town; in 1910, there were 
a dozen villages, three of them 
incorporated, and over two 
dozen elevators. It was esti- 
mated there were from 3 to 5 
"million bushels of 1910 wheat 
marketed from the district. 
Nearly all of the wheat went 
No. 1 Northern, bringing 80 
cents or more a bushel in cash 
to the farmer. An acre of land, 
then, that produced twenty-five 
bushels of No. 1 Northern wheat 
quite easily gave its own value 
and better, as values are based. 

Railways. — The Canadian 
Pacific, Canadian Northern, 
and Grand Trunk Pacific are extended through all the settled 
portions, and here as in most of Central Canada, there are 
very few settlements that are more than ten or twenty miles 
from a line of railway. When the Canadian Pacific Line, 
extending from Weyburn — on the " Soo " Line — to Leth- 
bridge, and the Canadian Northern's Southern Saskatchewan 
extension are completed, the settlers will have facilities for 
sending to the world's markets the products of a splendid 
territory covering an area of about 20,000 square miles. 
Over 500 miles of steel were laid in Saskatchewan in 1910, 
good deal of it being in Southern Saskatchewan. 

CENTRAL SASKATCHEWAN 

Central Saskatchewan is watered east and west by the 
main Saskatchewan River and by its chief branch, the North 
Saskatchewan, a great part of whose navigable length lies 
within this section. The surface generally is rolling prairie 
interspersed with bluffs of poplar, spruce, and pine, alter- 
nating with intruding portions of the great plain from the 
south. In soil and climate Central Saskatchewan is well 
adapted to the raising of cattle, wheat, and other grains. 

A great area of the best land is still open for free home- 
steading. The pre-emptor and homesteader may add to his 
holdings by purchasing adjoining land from the land com- 
panies of the Canadian Northern, Canadian Pacific Railway, 
and other corporations. These unimproved lands are 
obtainable at from $12 an acre, upwards. 

Spring opens in April, and the summer temperature hovers 
about the 00° mark. May sees the seeding completed, and 



SASKATCHEWAN 



21 



by the third week of August tlie crops are ready to garner. 
Precipitation is usually ample, 75 per cent of the rainfall 
coming during the growing months of summer. 

Districts recently opened for settlement are the Shellbrook, 
the Beaver River, and Green Lake, into which the Canadian 
Northern Railway is projectL'd. Other new districts are the 
Jack Fish Lake and Turth> Lake, north of Battleford, into 
which the same road is being built. Thes > districts are favourable 
for grain and cattle raising. 

The wiiole region is well supplied with fuel. 

The country is dotted with bluffs of poplar. The soil, while 
exceedingly rich and black, has enough grit in it to make it an 
early ripener of wheat and oats, and natural grasses grow from 
two to three feet high. 

Railways. — A hundred miles east of Prince Albert stretches 
a park-like country, specially adapted to mixed farming. 
The Regina-Prince .\lbert branch of the Canadian Northern 
is of inestimable value to the farmers and towns along its 
length. A portion of the main line on its way to Edmonton 
crosses through the western end of this section and enters 
Alberta at Lloydminster. Every mile of this line is flanked 
by a farming country which is attracting crowds of Euro- 
pean and American settlers. 

A stretch of territory lying between Prince Albert and 
Battleford, on the line of the Canadian Northern Railway, 
connecting these two towns, is now attracting a great deal of 
attention. The soil is very productive, is almost all clean, 
level prairie. Splendid yields of wheat and oats are reported. 
As feeding ground for cattle there is nothing better. 

The same company is also building northwesterly from 
Prince Albert, and have also under construction a line 
running from North Battleford towards Athabaska, via 
Jackfish Lake-. The Grand Trunk Pacific have under con- 
struction a branch line which will connect Battleford with 
their splendidly equipped main line at Oban. 

In addition to the two 2.5-mile lines to be built south 
from Wilkie, it is expected there will be built a line 32 miles 
to the northwest from Wilkie through the Cut Knife Country. 
Much splendid land will be opened up for settlement by 
these new branches. 

NORTHERN SASKATCHEWAN 

Northern Saskatchewan has not yet been opened to any 
extent for settlement. There are approximately 80 million 
acres beyond the railway at Prince Albert, a heritage which 
time, zeal, and railway enterprise will eventually make 
accessible to the world. The furs, forest wealth, and fisheries 
are recognized as a national asset, but thousands of acres of 
fertile land lie beyond the existing lines of railway, which 
await future development. Northern Saskatchewan has 
natural resources sufficient to maintain a population equal 
to that of any European country in corresponding latitude. 

Summing Up. — In forming an estirriate of the future of 
Saskatchewan, it is well to remember that this Pro^^nce lies 
in the same latitude as the British Isles. Denmark, Belgium, 
and the greater part of Germany are as far north as Regina. 
Edinburgh is nearer the top of the map than is any one of 
the settled parts of Saskatchewan. Christiania and St. 
Petersburg are on the 60th parallel of latitude, which is 
the northern boundary of this Province. 

Speaking generally, the principal homestead tract in 
Saskatchewan is west of the Canadian Pacific Railway fines 
from North Portal to Outlook, and south of township 30. 
Between the railway and the international boundary lie 
several million acres of unoccupied land, and last year 
homesteading took place there on a large scale. Mortlach, 
Herbert, and Swift Current are points from which prospec- 
tive homesteaders make excursions into the south country. 

A great inducement to settlers to locate in the district 



west of Moose Jaw is the fact that an additional kfiO acres of 
laud can t)e obtained by each homesteader as a purchased 
homestead or as a pre-emption. The year 1910 saw consid- 
erable construction on two lines of railway south of the main 
line of tlie Canadian Pacific, their ultimate destination being 
Lethbridge in Southern Alberta. North of the main line of the 
Canadian Northern and east of Humboldt is a considerable 
tract but partly settled; north and west of Prince Albert 
and north of Battleford is a great area of unoccupied land. 

Cities, Towns, and Villages. — When the census was taken 
in 1906 it was found that 81 per cent of the people lived 
in rural municipalities. There are now four cities, 46 incorpo- 
rated towns, 37 villages, and 2,000 rural municipalities. 

Regina, the capital, is situated on the main line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 360 miles west of Winnipeg. 
Regina is also a terminus of the Canadian Northern and of the 
Areola line of the Canadian Pacific. The city lies in the 
heart of a splendid agricultural district, and is a wholesale 
centre for agricultural machinery. It is noted for its sub- 
stantial public buildings and paved streets, is well supplied 
with hotel accommodation and boasts a dozen banks. It 
has a collegiate institute and provincial normal school. The 
city is the headquarters of the Royal Northwest Mounted 
Police, and also of the judiciary of Saskatchewan: estimated 
population, 15,000. The total building permits in Regina 
for 1910 was 82,352,228, as compared with S750,000 in 1909. 

Moose Jaw, forty miles west of Regina, is a Canadian 
Pacific Railway divisional point, and the terminus of the 
Soo Line and of the line under construction from Moose Jaw 
to Lacombe via Outlook. It is noted for its schools 
and churches; it has a flour mill of 1,000-barrel capacity and 
extensive stock yards. At the Moose Jaw Land Office in 
1908 and 1909, occurred a most remarkable rush for free 
lands, probably half of the new settlers coming from the 
Lnited States; estimated population, 13,000. Moose Jaw 
spent SI, 035,000 in building in 1910, .S500,000 in 1909. 

Saskatoon, the seat of the' University of Saskatchewan, is 
a growing city beautifully situated on the south branch of 
the Saskatchewan. It is well served by railways, being 
located on the Canadian Northern's Regina-Prince Albert 
Line and on the route of the Canadian Pacific Line from 
Winnipeg to Edmonton. Grand Trunk Pacific trains will run 
into Saskatoon, and connection is made with Canadian 
Northern main-line trains at Warman. Population, about 
13,000. Building permits in Saskatoon for 1910 amounted to 
§3,000,000, as compared with 8943,000 in 1909. 

Prince Albert is the northern terminus of the Canadian 
Northern, and has a delightful situation on the north branch 
.of the Saskatchewan. It has four big sawmills, is well 
supplied with banks, churches, schools, and hotels; esti- 
mated population, 7,000; building permits, 1910, 8700,000; 
1909, 8144,000. 

Indian Head, the largest incorporated town in Saskatche- 
wan, has more elevators than any other town in the 
Province. For some time it enjoyed the distinction of 
being the largest initial wheat-shipping point in the world. 
The Dominion Government experimental farm is there. 

Moosomin, 220 miles west of Winnipeg on the main line of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a flourishing town sur- 
rounded by a rolling prairie country particularly adapted 
to mixed farming. It has a population of 1,400,^ good 
churches, schools, banks, grain elevators, and waterworks. 

Yorkton, 280 miles northwest of Winnipeg, on the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway, has within the last five years doubled 
its population. Yorkton ships annually over 2 million bush- 
els of grain and is a very up-to-date town of about 3,000 
inhabitants, with creditable municipal buildings, eight wheat 
elevators, waterworks, sewerage system, flour mill, sawmill, 
cement sidewalks, telephone, and a municipal gas plant. 

Wolsely, 300 miles west of Winnipeg, is the western 



CENTRAL 
SASKATCHEWAN 




For Map of Southern Saskatchewan see pages 18 and li 



lown in color. 



CENTRAL 
SASKATCIIKWW 



Xownsbip lUo'' Mufot Central Saskatchc»-au. IU4 






A 






A 




1 20 


38 





24 



THE LAST BEST WEST 




Elevator Avenue, Rosthern, Saskatchewan 



terminus of the Wolsely-Reston branch of the Canadian Pacific 
RaiKvay. Swift Current, 112 miles west of Moose Jaw, is a 
divisional point of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a busy 
rail\v:iy town. Maple Creek, for many years the centre of a 
ranching section, has a population of 1,500, and the country 
around is rapidly filling up with settlers. Estevan is noted 
for its coal mines and enjoys direct rail connection with 
Winnipeg. Weybnrn is a prosperous town on the Soo Line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway between Moose Jaw and 
North Portal. Weyburn is connected by railway with 
Stoughton, thus furnishing a direct route to the east. Ros- 
thern, on the Regina-Prince Albert branch of the Canadian 
Northern, is in the centre of a good agricultural district. 

Battleford and North Battleford, on the Saskatchewan, 
150 miles west of Prince Albert, are important points as the 
centres of prosperous communities. Qu'Appelle and Areola 
are enterprising towns. Among the largest incorporated vil- 
lages in Saskatchewan are Broadview, a divisional point on 
the Canadian Pacific Railway main line; Grenfell, also on the 
main line; Duck Lake, on the Regina-Prince Albert branch; 
Akimedi. Balgoni-, Lemberg, Lloydminster, Melfort, Rouleau, 
and Sintaluta. Portal is the point where the Soo Line enters 
Saskatchewan. Yellow Grass, Milestone, and Drinkwater 
are newer towns on the Soo Line, settled within the past 
eight years by progressive farmers from the States. 

Important and growing towns on the Grand Trunk Pacific 
are Melville. Watrous, and Scott. 



GROWTH OF SASKATCHEWAN 



1901 



Population oi'?I? 

Ht>rses 8.3,461 

Other Horned Cattle 160.613 

Sheep '3,2-?' 

Swine 2(,<.->3 



Mr. Jubinville, was born 
in Munroe County, Mich. 
He farmed at Red Lake 
Falls, Minn. He had S400 
in cash, a team of horses, a 
cow, and a few sheep when 
he got his homestead at 
Jack Fish Lake, Battleford 
district, in 1903. He has 
since purehaserl a quarter- 
section near himfor S2,000, 
has 48 head of cattle, a 
number of horses, good 
buildings, and is worth at 
least .S8,000. His children 
raise from $300 to SSOO each 
year in gnrden vegetables 



1906 1908 

263,713 335,721 

240,.566 343,863 

112,618 179,722 

360.236 56.5,315 

121,290 144,370 

123 916 426.579 



1909 
341,521 
429,766 
234,4.58 
594,632 
152,601 
352.385 



1910 
400,000 
532,574 
224,745 
527,305 
16.5,8.55 
324,046 



He has never had a poor crop, and his 
wheat has averaged from 25 to 30 bushels 
per acre, and his oats 50 to 85 bushels. 
His cattle have never been stabled in 
winter, and do not need it. Land is worth 
from $15 to $18 an acre in his neighborhood. 

Robt. Skinner settled in the Swift Cur- 
rent country in 1906, formerly living at 
Portal, North Dakota, and his capital was 
5 cents. After working for a farmer for 
a while, he got money enough to enter for 
a homestead, and then secured a pre- 
emption. Getting 30 acres broken, he had 
a crop of 20 bushels of flax to the acre, 
which realized him $960. After all ex- 
penses, he had $700 clear. His 50 acres 
of wheat in 1910 yielded 22 bushels to 
the acre, and of his holdings he has 300 acres ready for a 
1911 crop, from which he expects a return of $4,000. In 
1909 his father had 105 acres sowed with 100 bushels of wheat, 
and raised 4,600 bushels, weighing 63 pounds to the bushel. 

General Letters.— Herewith are submitted letters written 
by farmers, which offer the best proof that can be given of 
their success since taking up their homes in Central Canada: 

Maidstone, Sask., Canada, May 8, 1910. 
I came up here from Coshooton County, Ohio, four years ago, and am 
perfectly sat sfied with this country. I have two brothers homesteadmg 
I have no wish to return, as I can make a much more comfortable livin 
here. CLARENCE YOUNG. 

Maidstone, Sask., August 4, 1910. 
I came to Maidstone from Menominee Wis., four years ago, with my 
parents and two brothers. We all located homesteads and now have our 
paten tl The soU is a rich black loam as good as I have ever seen. We 
ha e had good crops each year and in 1909 they were exceedingly good 
wheat yielding from 22 to 40 bushels per acre, and oats from 40 to 80. We 
Tre well pleasid with the country and do not care to return to our native 
State. . LEE DOW. 

Maidstone, Sask., Canada, August 8, 1910. 
I have been in most of the States of the Union and have lived five years 
in Doon, Lyon County, Iowa, but I never found a better opportunity for 
successful farming and educating my boys than right here. In spite of 
general drought ray wheat crop wUl yield me about 25 bushels to the acre 
general s , J' CUTSFESTH. 

Tofield, Alberta, .July 10, 1910. 
I am a native of Texas, the largest and one of the very best States of 
the Union I have been here three years and have got no desire to return 
tn the States to live I would like to say to all who are not satisfied 
where you are, make a trip to Western Canada; if you do not like it you 
wuf feel well repaid for your trip. Take this from one ' who's on the 
Tr nind '' We enjoy splendid government, aws, schools railway facilities 
health and last, but not least, an ideal climate, and this from a Texan 
neaim, au ^ PUGHS. 

lames Normur of Porter, Wis., after visiting Dauphin Man., says: 
have teen in Wisconsin twenty-five years, coming out from N^way. Never 
hill Sn better land, and the crops in East Dauphin are better than I have 
ever seen especially the oats. There is more straw and it has heav er heads 
than oTs in Wisconsin. This is just the kind of land we are looking for 
wl are all used to mixed farming, and the land we have seen is finely adapted 
to mixe^l farming. Cattle, hogs, horses and grain will be my products 
andTor the live stock, prospects could not be better. I have never seen sue 
rattle as are raised here on the wild prairie grasses, and the vetch stands 
three or four feet high in the groves and on the open prairie. 




Five Four-horse Teams Seeding on the Canadian Prairie Province of Saskatchewan 



ALBERTA 



Alberta, the most westerly of the three Prairie Provinces, 
is twice the size of Great Britain and Ireland, and much 
larger than either France or Germany: the Province is 750 
miles long: maximum width 400 miles; area 1(52 million acres. 

Rivers. — The four chief rivers all rise in tlie Rockies and 
have a general easterly course — the South Saskatchewan, 
the North Saskatchewan, the Athabaska, and the Peace. 

Alberta has many lakes, chiefly in its northern part, rang- 
ing in size from Lake .\thabaska, 120 miles long, and Lesser 
Slave, sixty miles long, to bodies of water only a few acres 
in extent. The total lake area gives an aggregate of 
H million acres. 

Railways.- — Besides its main line the Canadian Pacific 
Railway has two branches from Calgary — one north to 
Strathcona, the other soutli to Maclcod. Two branches run- 
ning eastward 
diverge at La- 
combe and Wetas- 
kiwin. Another 
branch leaves the 
Canadian Pacific 
Railway main line 
near Medicine Hat . 
passes through 
L e t h b r i dge and 
.M a c 1 e o d and 
crosses the moun- 
tains by the Crow's 
Nest Pass. A 
southern line of 
the Canadian Pa- 
cific will connect 
Lethbridge with 
Weyburn. on the 
'"Soo" line and 
when completed 
will open up a large area of splendid agricultural land. 

The Canadian Northern enters Alberta from the east at 
Lloydminster and crosses the Saskatchewan River at Fort 
Saskatchewan on its way to the capital, Edmonton. From 
Edmonton this pioneer road has lines projected and partially 
constructed north and west and also one to connect its main 
hne with Calgary. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific trans-continental system serves 
the territory lying between the Canadian Northern and the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, passing through Edmonton on its 
way to the Yellowhead Pass, to which point it is now 
operating trains through a fertile and productive terri- 
tory. Much homesteading is being done along the line. 

From Lethbridge the Alberta 
Railway & Irrigation Company's 
line runs south to the interna- 
tional boundary, and from Stirling, 
a branch reaches Cardston. 

There are settlements all alone 
the various lines, and adjoinini; 
the available homesteads are farm 
lands open to purchase from the 
railways, land companies, and 
private owners at reasonable price- 
and on" easy terras. Total rail- 
way mileage, 2,21.5. 

Cities and Towns of Alberta.— 
High up on the banks of the Sas- 
katchewan and forming the portal 
alike to the Last West and the 




Panncr 'Ut Fi->:d 92 Bushels to the Acre, Alberta 



New North, the capital city of Edmonton has attractions for 
the capitalist, the tourist, the manufacturer, and the seeker 
for health. Located in the centre of tiie great trans- 
continental highway, between the Atlantic and Pacific, within 
a decade Edmonton will be rated among the world's great 
ones. Traffic from Prince Rupert to Hudson Bay will go 
through her portals, the south will contribute, and the trade 
of the (.reat North country is hers, alone. Possessed of her 
own waterworks, electric-lighting and power systems, street 
railway, telephones, the city is modern, attractive, and 
instinct ^\'itii growing life. Fifteen banks are evidence of 
prosperity, with their clearinghouse totals of over IJ million 
dollars a week, Edmonton occupying the eighth place in the 
cities of the Dominion. The erection of the Parliament build- 
ing.-j, substantial y.o.it ofTire, new court house, with large 

p ork - packing 
plants, and other 
solid buildings are 
unmistakable signs 
of faith and works, 
and each year 
emphasizes her 
right to her distinc- 
tive municipal 
motto — " Indus- 
try, Energy, and 
Enterprise." 
Building permits 
in Edmonton in 
1910 amounted to 
82,031,619. 

Calgary has writ- 
ten its own story 
in public and per- 
manent buildings 
along its substan- 
fial streets. It has over one hundred wholesale establish- 
ments, 300 retail stores, fifteen chartered banks, and half a 
hundred manufacturing establishments, a Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association Hall costing SIO.OOO, and a §150,000 normal 
school building. The chief streets are paved. There is munici- 
pal ownership of sewer system, waterworks, and electric 
light. The gravity water system, which carries a supply 
sufficient for a city of 200,000 people, cost about 8350,000. 
Directly bearing upon tlie future of Calgary is the irrigation 
project of the Bow River Valley, where 3 million acres 
are being colonized. On this work already over 8 
million dollars has been expended, and there are in active 
operation 1,200 miles of canals and laterals. Population 




Brood Mares in A.berta Central Canada 



SOITHERX 
AUJEKTA 



Lunds within irregular line along railway in Oritisb Columbia are administered by the Douxlaion Goverumeut. 




':('< For >Iap of f'ontral Alberta see i)aees 30 and 31. 



Surveyed lands shown in color. 



sottiiern 
.vi.|{i:kta 



10 IVJ I 8 1 G< M I * ] 1 " l.^^ r.n ..f To..»l.ip 



of SeoUoD dlrldcd 
Quirter Stctlong 



North East 
Quurter 




27 



28 



THE LAST BEST WEST 



is estimated at between 35,000 and 40,000. Building per- 
mits in 1910 amounted to 5A million dollars. 

Lethbridge is a prosperous coal-mining and commercial 
town in Southern Alberta. The output of the mines finds 
a ready market in British Columbia, in Montana, and as 
far east as Winnipeg. A Government Experimental Farm 
near Lethbridge demonstrates what are the best grains to 
be grown and how to grow them. The hardier varieties 
of summer and fall apples can be successfully grown. 

Medicine Hat, situated in the valley of the South Sas- 
katchewan, is the centre of a magnificent ranching and 
mixed-farming district. It is a divisional point, with 
extensive raihvaj^ shops all operated by natural gas. The 
light, heat, and power, derived from natural gas, is sold 
to manufacturers at 5 cents per thousand cubic feet, and 
for domestic purposes at 1 cent. 

Wetaskiwin is a railway divisional point from which 
stretch farms in all directions. The location of the city, near 
the Peace Hills, is very beautiful. Wetaskiwin owns its elec- 
tric light plant, and a system of waterworks and sewerage- 
Raymond.-in Southern Alberta, has had a rapid growth. Laid 
out in 'August, 1901, its twenty-five original inhabitants 
increased in eight years to 2,500. A sugar factory is the chief 
industry. Red Deer is situated on the Canadian Pacific, half 
way between Calgary and Edmonton, many of its citizens 
being formerly .\mericans. There operate here a large saw- 
mill, two brick-yards, concrete works, creameries, wheat 
elevators, and a sash-and-door factory. Coal and wood 
are plentiful and cheap. The district has never had a 
crop failure, and blizzards are unknown. Lacombe is on 
the direct line between Calgary and Edmonton. It has a 
flour mill, foundry, planing-mill, brick-yard, grain elevators, 
electric lights, and telephones. The country surrounding is 
noted for itjs pure-bred cattle and horses, and a Government 
E.xperimental Farm adjoins the town. 

Strathcona, on the other side of the Saskatciiewan from 
Edmonton, is the seat of the Provincial University, and is a 
progressive town. Macleod and Cardston give promise of 
substantial growth. Other towns are Claresholm, Didsbury, 
Fort Saskatchewan, High River, Innisfail, Olds, Okotoks, 
Pincher Creek, Ponoka, St. Albert, Veimilion, and Vegreville. 

GROWTH OF ALBERT.^ 

1901 1906 1908 1909 *1910 

Population. 73.022 185,412 265,820 273,859 321,862 

Horses 93.001 226,534 246,922 263,713 294,225 

Milch cows 46,295 1 01,245 110,3,57 116,371 124,470 

Other homed cattle . . 329,391 849,387 934,326 910,547 926,937 

Sheep 80,055 1.54,266 161.979 171,422 179,067 

Hogs 46.163 114,623 115,769 139,270 143,560 

Cultivated farms in .Mberta 45.000 

Climate. — Comprising as she does such a large area within 
her borders. Alberta necessarily has much variety in climate. 
However, in all parts the clear, bracing air is very invigorating 
and the beautiful autumns, the mild winter, the cool nights 
of the summer, no matter how warm the day, and the long 
hours of sunshine at all times, have justly won for her tlie 
appellation of "Sunny .\lberta." 

Winter .sets in generally between the middle of November 
and the middle of December and breaks up the latter part of 
.March or the beginning of .\pnl. In the southern portion 
of the Province the autumns are particularly fine and the 
approach of winter i.s frequently quite delayed, which, with 
a comparatively early spring, makes the winter season a very 
short one. It is true the temperature sometimes drops con- 
siderably below zero, but the clear air and bright sunshine 
modify the severity to such an extent that the cold is not 
felt as much as temperatures several degrees higlier in coun- 
triea where wind and fog prevail, or where the air contains a 
higher percentage of moisture. 

The climate is adapted to successful mixed farming and the 

'Report Census Bureau, Ottawa. 




The Cattle and Hog Industries in Central Canada 

growing of grain, the heaviest rains coming^ in midsummer 
while scarcely any downfall interferes with seeding opera- 
tions in the spring. The clear weather of tile autumn 
months generally permits the farmer to stook his grain and 
let it stand for weeks, threshing it from the stook. 

Soil and Products. — Alberta has a wealth and diversity of 
natural products. A great proportion of the land is undu- 
lating prairie, well watered, and covered with a deep, black 
loam, in many places four and five feet in thickness, whose 
fertility and depth give it a growing power practically inex- 
haustible. Allowing that one-half of the surface of the Prov- 
ince is taken up with lake, timber lands, and second-quality 
soil, a conservative estimate gives 80 million acres of first- 
class wheat land in Alberta. This would allow a 160-acre 
farm each to half a million farmers, making possible for the 
future an agricultural population of 2h million souls. 

It is to the problems of agricultural education and railway 
extension that Alberta lawmakers are first addressing them- 
selves. The formation of agricultural societies is encouraged, 
the dissemination of exact scientific knowledge is carried on 
by means of farmers' institutes, stock-ju&ging schools, seed 
fairs, and travelling dairies. The raising of pure-bred stock 
is assisted by government grants. 

Educational Facilities. — A system of free public schools 
has been established. The organization of districts is optional 
with the settlers, the Government liberally supporting all 
public schools. School population at end of 1909, 46,048; 
number of schools, 1,254. The University of Alberta has 
been established by the Provincial Government and will 
afford every opportunity for higher education, while there are 
preparatory schools at Calgary, Lethbridge, and other towns. 

Poultry Raising.^ — In a country where the winter price of 
fresh eggs ranges from .50 to GO cents, a dozen, and where 
the summer price rarely falls below 25 cents, extensive 
developments along this profitable line of mixed farming 
cannot be long delayed. 

At the Farm Congress, held at Spokane in October, 1910, 
the first prize for general display of dry farm products was 
awarded the Province, wliile prize.i for individual exhibits 
of grain and vegetables were numerous. 

Dairying. — The dairy industry is destined to assume con- 
siderable proportions in Alberta. In the creameries operated 
by the Government for the farmers, over 2^ million pounds 
of butter were produced in 1910, which, sold at an average of 25 
cents per pound, gives an estimated value of about $600,000. 
Butter from private dairies gave .$250,000; cheese factories, 
$28,000, a grand total of dairy products of .$880,000. Ideal 
conditions prevail for the dairy herd — abundance of feed, good 



ALBERTA 



29 



water, and healthful climate. In sparsely settled districts 
the Government sends a travelling dairy for instruction. 

Handling the Grain. — In 1905, Alberta's elevators had a 
capacity of 1,715,000 bushels; in 1910, the capacity was over 
8 million bushels. Such is the history of progress throughout 
all Central Canada. In '1909, there were 1,100 threshing 
outfits in the Province. 

Stock. — Great attention is paid to the breeding of horses and 
cattle. The luxurious grasses, pure and abundant water, 
and dry winter climate constitute favourable conditions for 
live stock. 

Telephones. — Th? Province owns and operates its own 
telephones. Long distance mileage, 3,010 miles; rural lines, 
2,300 miles ; number of subscribers, 1,030. 

Mineral Resources. — Alberta has enormous coal and 
lignite areas, the production of coal in 1910 being over 
3 million tons, valued at over million dollars. The settle- 



The soil is a fertile loam. The climate of Southern .\lberta 
is ideal, with pleasing summers and mild winters. Stock 
pasture in the open air during winter, grazing on the nutritive 
sun-dried grasses. The absence of timber in Southern 
.\lberta is compensated for by the supply of coal. 

For years this district was almost entirely a horse and 
cattle country, but now winter wheat is pushing the cowboy 
back, the range being rapidly converted into fields of grain 
and areas of sugar beets. Wit'i the introduction of "Alberta 
Red," a newera was ushered in for winter wheat. Sown on new 
breaking or summer-fallowed land from the middle of July 
to the end of September, winter wheat is ready for tlie 
reaper from the 1st to the 15th of August in the following 
year. Climate and soil combine to make Southern Alberta 
the ideal district for the growth of this cereal. 

The total acreage of winter wheat for the Province in 1908 
was 101,000, the average j'ield being thirty bushels an 




A Field of Oats near Edmonton, Alberta, which Yielded About lOO Bushels Per Acre 



ment of the country, together with the great railway con- 
struction, will mean a rapid increase in coal consumption. 

Natural gas, under heavy pressure, has been found at 
Medicine Hat, Dunmore Junction, and Bow Island on the South 
Saskatchewan, and at Pelican Rapids on the Athabaska. 
Excellent indications of the existence of petroleum lave been j 
found both in the south near the British Columbia boundary, ' 
and in the north in the vicinity of Fort Mc Murray and south- | 
ward, and it is confidently expected that important commer- 
cial oil fields will soon be located. 

Gold has been recovered for manj^ years from the sands and 
gravels of the North Saskatchewan, and its occurrence is 
noted in many rivers flowing eastward from the foothills of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

Fish. — The Great Lakes of the North furnish yearly half 
a million pounds of incomparable white fish, while the fur 
wealth of the North is an important asset. 

The Province naturally falls into three divisions, exhibiting 
marked distinctions in climatic and topographical condi- 
tions — Southern, Central, and Northern Alberta. 

SOUTHERN ALBERTA 

Southern Alberta is open and rolling, and devoid of timber j 
except along the streams and the Rocky Mountain foot-hills. | 



acre, and by far the greater portion of this was grown in 
Southern Alberta. The total harvest of Alberta's winter 
wheat for 1909 was over 2 million bushels, with an 
average of 25 bushels to the a^re. Around Lethbridge, Taber, 
Grassy Lake, Cardston, Spring Coulee, Pincher Creek," Mac- 
leod, Stavely, Leavitt, Claresholm, Nanton, High River, 
Okotoks, and Calgary, winter wheat is grown. This wheat is 
in great demand on account of its milling qualities. 
The following table shows comparative yields: 

1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 



Alberta 23.9 18.3 21.4 20.8 20.7 29.7 

Washington 20.3 22.2 24.6 20.8 29.5 24.5 

Oregon 18.2 19.0 18.6 20.0 25.5 23.2 

California 11.2 10.8 9.3 17.1 15.0 14.6 

United States . . . 12 .9 12 .5 14.5 15.5 14.6 14.4 



Water Supply and Irrigation. — Water for domestic and 
farm purposes is easily obtained at reasonable depth, 
and with an intelligent system of cultivation, aimed to make 
the best use of the rainfall, no fear need be entertained of 
shortage of moisture. In order to make sure that there 
would be no danger from this source, however, a number of 
irrigation ditches have been constructed. 

In climate and soil. Southern Alberta for sugar-beet grow- 
ing compares favourably with Germany and the world. There 
were 2,400 acres of sugar-beets cultivated in 1909; the esti- 
mated yield was eight tons per acre. 



Surveyed lai I is 




30 



For Map of Southcn Alberta see pages 36 and87|^ 



own In color. 



CKNTRAL 
ALISKUTA 



Plan of Tom lifl l|> 


31 


;w 


33 


31 


i') 


66 


30 


29 


2S 


27 


26 


25 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


21 


IS 


n' 


If. 


15 


U 


13 




8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


G 




4 


3 


2 


1 




32 



THE LAST BEST WEST 



During the spring of 1910, Southern Alberta crops suffered 
considerably from lack of rain. However, a fair yield 
was secured, and in some districts heavy yields were reported, 
going to show that the soil here responds quickly to the 
present method of cultivation, which will raise good crops 
with a minimum of moisture. During the fall of 1910 rain 
fell in suthcient quantities to place a large amount of hope 
in the heart of the farmer. Writing to a local paper on the 
17th of September, 1910, a correspondent says: 

"I was verv agreeably surprised to see from the train, field 
after f^eld of 'stooks of grain that will give a fairly good yield 
?rmn the thresher. While there will be no very big yield, 
e e a e manv fields of oats around High River Claresholm 
Sto and Stavely that will yield any way from 35 to 50 
bushels' per acre, and fields of wheat that will give from 
r2 o 15 bushels T9 me this did not look very much like 
Jomplete crop failure in Southern Alberta, of which so much 
ha^ been sa d. Another thing that impressed me was 
the great stretches of larid that has been seeded to fall 
wheat for next year's crop." 

W H Fairfield, Superintendent of the Farm at Leth- 
bridce reports: "With the exception of two or three days 
abmu the middle of the month, ploughing was genera in the 
Lethbridge district up to the night ot November 2oth. At 
the date of writing (November 30,1910) 
tlierc are four or five inches of snow on 
the ground and the weather is cold. 
Winter wheat generally appears to be 
in good condition." 

CENTRAL ALBERTA 

Central Alberta extends from the 

Red Deer River northward to the 

height of land between the Saskatche- 
wan and the Athabaska. Hill "and 

vale, clothed in grass and flowers, and 

dotted with spruce and aspen, mark 

this as the ideal land for the homes of 

a cultured people. Its great wealth is 

its dower of deep black humus vary- 
ing in depth from ten inches to three 

feet, which overlies a warm subsoil. 
Winter wheat and spring wheat arc 

raised successfully in Central Alberta. 

Official reports give the spring wheat 

acreage for 1910 for the whole Province 

as 450,000 as compared with 304,000 

in 1909. By far the greater portion of 
this was in Central Alberta. The area 
of oats under crop here in 1910 was 974,000 acres as com- 
pared with 820,000 in 1909; yields of up to 100 bushels to 
the acre being recorded. Up to sixty bushels is the farmer's 
justified expectation, and Alberta already advocates a 
standard grade of oats calling for forty-two pounds to the 
bushel, as against the legal weight of thirty-two pounds 
in the Republic to the south. 

Barley is a successful crop, over thirty-two bushels to the 
acre being the average of 1909. Acreage in 1910 was 91,000. 
Flax and native hay are standard crops. 

Central Alberta's water supply is ample. None of the 
miasma of malaria exudes from this scjil, and so ague and 
kindred troubles are unknown. No country in the world 
shows healthier or more attractive children than Alberta. 

West and north of Edmonton, a territory being made acces- 
.yible by the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian-Nortnern, 
there i"s an immense stretch of splendid country, in which 
there are available a large number of homesteads. Wheat 
and oats are certain crops. Wonderful yields of the latter 
are reported. The rainfall is certain and sure. Mixed farm- 
ing can be carried on most 8ucces.-,fully. The wild grasses 
and the pea vine are there in such profusion that there is 



always an ample supply of feed for stock, while water is 
convenient, plentiful, and easy to secure. The Stony Plain 
and Morinville districts are rapidly coming into prominence. 
On into the foot-hills and the mountains are splendid 
stretches of prairie land, through which the Grand Trunk 
Pacific is now constructed. Settlement is attracted on 
account of the fertihty of the soil and the mild climate. 

During the past year there was laid out 3 million acres 
of new land to the north, northeast, and northwest of Edmon- 
ton—practically all the unsubdivided land between 
Edmonton and Athabaska Landing— and between Edmonton 
and Lac la Biche to the northeast and along the main line 
of the Grand Trunk Pacific and north of that line. 

Game is plentiful and varied. Ducks, prairie chicken, 
swans, geese, cranes, waveys, partridge, snipe, and plover 
afford excellent sport to tlie gunshot. Moose are obtain- 
able in the north, with cariboo and red and blacktailed deer. 
Wolves, foxes, bears, with the badger, muskrat, marten, 
mink, otter, ermine, and wolverine furnish a fur supply 
which runs well up into large money value each winter. 

The northern and western portions of Central Alberta has 
some brush, and requently this land is avoided, the pref- 




Ranching Scene near VegreviUe, Alberta. In this District Grain Raising is also Very Successful 



erence being for the open prairie. But those who have taken 
up what is termed "brush" land find they have a soil fully 
as good as that of the open prairie.. They think it better, 
the cost of clearing is slight, and they have the advantage of 
shelter for cattle, and an absolute assurance of splendid water 
at a reasonable depth. To these people the treeless prairie is a 
boon for thp cost of clearing their land is reduced— since there 
is no'w a ready market for the by-product formerly burnt 
up as useless. Last year 85 carloads of willow pickets were 
loaded at Leduc and shipped to the south and east. Farmers 
get two cents each for a willow picket with a two-inch top. 
Tarnarac posts sell for 7 cents for seven-foot length or at 
the rate of one cent per foot. 

NORTHERN ALBERTA 

Far north of the end of steel extends 75 per cent of this 
rich Province, a heritage as yet unexploited. When the rail- 
ways push their way into the Athabaska and the Peace, it 
will be realized that Alberta owns an Empire north of 
the Saskatchewan. This district has been set apart by 
Nature to provide homes for millions of agrarian people 
when the plains to the south are filled up. 



GRAIN YIELDS 



33 



EXCELLENT GRAIN YIELDS IN CENTRAL CANADA 

The fanner of C'eiitial Canada is generally a business 
man, and in his stock-taking he will have found that last year 
was a successful one. Reports from various districts show 
that in spite of the visitation of drought in a small portion 
of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, there were splendid 
crops : 

Wm Lehman, of Kdsthern, had an average of 27 bushels on 60 acres 
of summer fallow. Mr. .Miilsky, of Rapid City (Man.), threshetl I.OOO 
bushels of oats from 7 acres. 

The vielii of the different varieties of wheat per acre at the Kxpeninental 
Farm, Brandon, was: Hed Fife, 2S bushels; White Fife, 34 bushels; Pres- 
ton. 32 bushels; early Red Fife. 27 bushels. 

In the Dempster (Man.) district, wheat went from 25 to 30 bushels per 
acre. Fifteen acres t>n the Mackenzie and Mann farm went 43 bushels. 

Manitoba's record crop for 1910 was grown on McMillan Bros.' farm 
near Westbourne. who had a total crop of 70.000 bushels, netting S40.000 
off 2.200 acres. . , 

Dow Bros, purchased a quarter-section located about three miles west 
of Oakland (Man >. paying for the same S3. 401). They cleared the land 
and 147 acres were placed under crop. The yield was 4..S00 bushels from 
the 147 acres. From this it will be seen that one year's crop has paid for 
their land, all crop expenses, and a fair interest on the outl.iy. 

At Lair 1 (Sask ), the crop returns showed that .J. B. Peters hail 12,800 
bushels from 320 acres, or nearly 40 bushels to the acre. In the Blaine 

Lake district the yiel.ls niaeed from 15 to 50 bushels per acre. Ben C^ruise 
having 1.1 -M) bushels from 24 acres. Edraond Trotter. 1.200 bushels off 30 
acres; yields of 30 bushels per acre were common; these are of wheat. 

At (.'upar (Sask.). oats threshed 80 bushels to the acre On the Traquairs 
farm at Cupar, a 5-acre plot of Marquis wheat yielde.l ,54 bushels to the 
acre, while Lawrence Barknell had 37 bushels. At 'Wordsworth, Reeder 

Bros.' wheat averaeed 33 4 bushels to the acre, and W. McMillan's, 32. 
In Foam Lake (Sask.) district. 100 bushels of oats to the acre were 

secured by Angun 

Robertson, D. 

McRae, and C. 

H. Hart, whil- 

the average was 

85. In wheat, 30 

bushels to the 

acre were quite 

common on the 

newer land, but 

off 65 acres of 

land cultivated 

for the past three 

years, George E. 

Wood secured 

495 bushels. 

James Traynor. 

Regina. had 50.- 

000 bushels of 

grain last jear. 

half of which was 

wheat, market 

value S25,000. 
Arthur Som- 

ers. of Strath- 

clair. had ItO 

acres wheat, 

which averse d 

25 bushels. 

Thomas Fore- 
man, of Miles'one, had 11,000 bushels of wheat and 3.000 bushels of flax 

off 600 acres of land. W. Weatherstone, of Strathclair. got 5.000 bushels 

of oats from 96 acres. W, A. Hose, of the Walderheim district, threshed 

6.000 bushels of wheat from 240 acres, an average of 25 bushels; 100 acres 

was on summer fallow and averaged 33 bushels. He had also an a\er- 

age of 60 bushels of oats to the acre on a .50-acre field. 

F,. F. Knipe. near Lloyrlminster (.Sask ). had 800 ' bushels of 

wheat from 20 acres. \V. Metcalf had over 31 bushels to the acre, while 

S. Henderson, who was hailed badly, had an average return of 32 bushels. 
McWhirter Bros, and John McBain, of Redvers (Sask ), had 25 

bushels of wheat to the acre. 

At Fleming (Sask.), A. Winter's wheat averaged 39 bushels to the acre. 

and several others report heavy yieliis. Mr Winter's crop was not on 

summer fallow, but on a piece of land broken in 1882. 

Near Redvers (Sask.), Jens Hortness threshed about 50 acres of wheat, 

averaging 29 busljels to the acre. Near Elphinstone (.Sa.sk.), many of the 

crops of oats would run to nearly 100 bushels to the acre. A Mr. Muir 

had about 200 acres, and he estimates the yield at about 60 bushels per acre. 
Wheat w»Bt 35 bushels to the acre on the farm of A. Loucks. near 

Wynyard (Sask.), in 1910; K. Erickson had 27 bushels anil S. Solvason 17. 
B. "F. Holden, near Indian Head (Sask.), threshed 950 bushels of wheat 

from 20 acres. 

0;i the E.Yperimental Farm at Indian Head, wheat went below 40 
bushels, while several, such as the Marquis and the Preston, have gone 
as high as 54 bushels to the acre. At Elstow fSask.), wheat ran on the 
average from 26 right up to 40 bushels per acre, while oats in some cases 
yielded a return of 70 to 80 bushels, with flax giving 13 to 14 bushels. 

.\t Craven (Sask.i, Albert Clark threshed from fiO acres of stubble 1,890 
buihels; from 20 acres of fallow, 900 bushels of Red Fife wheat that weighed 
65 pounds to the bushel. Charles Keith threshed 40 bushels to the acre 
from 40 acres. Albert '\'oung. of Stony Beach, southwest of Lumsden. 
threshed 52 bushels per acre from summer fallow, and George 'V'oung 5.000 
bushels from 130 acres of stubble and faUow — .38 H bushels to the acre. 
Arch Morton got 5.(500 basheLs of Red Fife from 160 acres; James Russell 
got 8.700 bushels from stubble and late breaking; i^: average 23 !4 bush. 

At Rosthem. Jacob Friesen had 27 bushels wheat per acre from 80 
-.acres on new land and an average over his whole farm of 21 '2 bushels. 
John Schultz threshed 4,400 bushels from KM) acres, or 44 bushels to the 
acre. John Lepp had 37 bushels per acre from 200 acres. A. B. Dirk had 
42 bushels per acre from 25 acres. Robert Roe of Grand Coulee threshed 
45 bushels to the acre from 420 acres. 

J. Cleveland. Sedley (Sask.j. got .30 bushels of wheat per acre 
on too acres and 18 bushels of flax per acre on 140 acres. T. Dundas, 40 
bu-shels per acre on 30 acres; M. E. Miller. 34 bushels per acre on 170 
acres of stubble, and 35 bushels per acre on 2.50 acres fallow. W. A. Day 
had 32 bushels per acre on 200 acres of stubble, ami 35 bu.shels on 250 
acres of fallow. J. O. Scott had .30 bushels of wheat per acre on 200 acres, 
and 18 bushels of flax per acre on 300 acres . James Bullick averaged 



J. S. Mooney, 31 




A Three Thousand Acre 'Wheat Field in Central Canada 



29 bushels of wheat; .\. .\llen. 30 bushels; Jos. Unions, 4C; Ale.x Ferguson, 
38; W. R. Thompson. 35, all on large acreages. J. Cleveland's flax land has 
yielded him StiO per acre in two years with one ploughing. 

Hector W. Swanston. a farmer near Welwyn (Sask.), had 5,150 bushels 
of wheat from one-quarter section of land. 

Robert Martin, of Belbeck (.Sask.). from 100 acres got 3.740 bushels of 
wheat, (ieo. .\. Campbell, of Caron (Sask.), from 1.30 acres summer fallow 
got 40 bushels per acre, and from 50 acres stubble got 24 bushels jxtr acre. 
One of the farmers of t\)lonsay threshed 36 bu.shels of wheat per ncre 
from 1.50 acres summer fallow. .lames Glew, of Drinkwater (Sask.). had 
36 bushels per acre — 40 acres summer fallow. 31 bushels per acre; 40 
acres stubble. 27 bushels; total. 6.680 bushels cn 200 acres. Abe Winters 
of Fleming ha<l 39 bushels of wheat per acre. 

At (iovan. Benjamin Armstrong had 33 bushels to the acre; .fohn 
Glumlin, 34 bushels; Charles Latta. 35 bushels; J. K. Taylor. 35 bushels; 
W'. Sraail. 2.0C0 bushels on 90 acres; J. F. Moore, 6, .500 bushels on 215 
acres; J. MacLean. 1..500 bushels off 63 acres; W. Hopw-ooil, 1.750 
bushels off 60 acres; W. Gray. 950 bushels off 30 acres; W. Curtin. 
850 bushels off .30 acres; John Meyers, Jr., of Grand Coulee, reports 34J 
bushels to the arrc. 

P. P. (Dpp. of Langharn (Sask.), had 35 bushels per acre; J. J. Thiessen 
31 bushels per acre: Chris Dear, 25 bushels per acre from 90 acres; Wm. 
Thiessen. 18 bushels per acre from 100 acres; P. P. Schultz, 18 bushels 
per acre from_ IGO acres; these were of wheat. 

Robt. H. W'iggins. of Manor (Sask.), had .39 bushels wheat and 75 bushels 
of oats per acre; Fred Cobb, 30 bushels of wheat and 75 bushels of oats 
per acre; Jack Robinson. 39 bushels of wheat per acre; W'm. Kindel, of 
Milestone (Sask.), had 38 bushels of wheat peracre; R. J. Moore, 40 bushels 
Martin Roddy, 38 J. D. .Sifton. of Moose Jaw. had 37 bushels of wheat 
per acre; oats. .50 bushels; flax. 1 1 bushels. John I... Smith, of New Warren, 
had 35 bushels of wheat per acre. 

.\t Regina, H. W. Laird had 35 bushels to the acre; W. H. Duncan, 
wheat, 25 bushels, flax, 10 bushels: G. M. Bell, wheat, 35 bushels, oats, 70 
bushels; C. E. Rothwell, 25 bushels; J. McKinnis, wheat 35 bushels, 
summer fallow. 20 bushels stubble; oats. 80 bushels; 
bushels of wheat. 80 bushels oats on stubble. 

At T e s s i e r , 
W'm. Nesbitt had 
44 bushels wheat 
to the acre; Sep. 
retrace, 34 
bushels: Thos. 
liiller, 31 bush- 
els. "These were 
all on summer 
fallow. Major 
Bros, stubble 
went 14 bushels. 

At T u X f o r d 
(Sask.), C. B. 
Dunriin'.! had 37 
I li-hel- heat ; 
.laiiit- llain, 41 
?'U>hel.. . n sum- 
mer fallow. 

At Y e 1 ! o w 
(jrass, Wm. Rob- 
sop, off one half- 
section, had 45 
bushels wheat to 
thr- acre, and 40 
bushels off an- 
other half. AI. 
A. Wilkinson, off 
160 acres, aver- 
aged 37 bushels 

to the acre. Geo. Steer, off a 20-acre field, threshed 52 bushels wheat to 
the acre. J^is wliole crop average ! over 40. Jas. A. R. Cameron's half- 
section averaged over 36 bushels to the acre. D. McNevan, who has two 
farms, averaged about 40 bushels. W. A. Cooper got 47 bushels to the acre 
off 71 acres; his whole crop went about 40. John Murray got 35 per acre 
off 160 acres; Hockley Bros.. 35 bushels per acre off a half-section; W. 
Ransom. 35 bushels peracre; N. Dunne. 39 bushels to the acre; S. C. 
Hart. 38 bushels per acre; T. Murray, Jr., 36 bushels to the acre; A. E. 
McEwan. 38 bushels to the acre; Mayor Taylor, 32 bushels to the acre. 

Despite the recent dry season experienced throughout the West, this 
season has proved an exceptionally good one at Areola (Sask.), and the yields 
high, the average for wheat per acre being 25 bushels, some going up 
as high as 35 bushels, while last September one farmer's threshing gave 
45 bushels to the acre, barley from 25 to 40 bushels, and flax 15 bushels. 

.\t Redvers (Sask.). 15 to 20 bushels wheat ; flax. 10 to 12 bushels. .At 
.\ntler wheat, 15 bushels; oats, 15 to 20 bushels; flax. 10 to 20 bushels. 
The quantity of wheat to the acre at Elstow (Sask.), ran on the average, 
from 26 right up to 40 bushels per acre, while oats in some cases yielded a 
return of 70 to 80 bushels per acre, with flax giving 13 to 14 bushels per 
acre. All of this grain was of fairly high grade. At Lanigan (Sask.), on 
an average, wheat went 22 bushels to the acre, some being as high as 30 
bushels, oats 45 to 50 bushels, and flax 16 bushels. At Neudorf (Sask ), 
this season's crops have shown well, an average of 24 bushels of wheat to 
the acre, and 30 to 34 bushels of oats being obtained. 

Last year's crops at Dubuc (Sask.). yielded fairly well considering the 
dry season experienced. Wheat averaged about 20 bushels to the acre, 
oats 35 bushels, and the flax, of which there is a very fair crop, about 15 
bushels At Tantallon. Sask.. a fairly good crop was obtained. The crops 
have not been adverselv affected by either the lack of moisture or frost, and 
the yields will probably pan out at an average of between 22 and 24 
bushels to the acre. o- i_ , j a 

At Osage (Sask ). wheat averaged 18 bushels, oats 3o, barley 60, and Hax 
10 bushels per acre. Very good crops are reported from Manor (Sask.), 
wheat averaging 23 to 25 bushels, oats 40, barley 30, and flax 10. From 
Windthorst (Sask.), the report reads: "Considering the dry season expe- 
rienced, this year's crops are showing a somewhat lower average to the pre- 
vious harvest, wheat being about 20 bushels to the acre, oats from 2o to 
30 bushels, and flax 12 bushels. At Fillmore (Sask.), wheat gave 18 bushels 
to the acre, oats 35, barley 40, and flax 12 bushels." , ^ , , , 

\t Gadsby (Sask ), J Brooks, R. McCracken, and J. Presley had wheat 
yielding 30 bushels to the acre. Some say 1910 was a lean year in the 
West, but the above yields show that good cultivation ol fertile soil 
brought a good crop. Flax yielded as high as 15 bushels to the acre and 
wheat as high as 34 bushels. , 

From Nokomis (Sask ), comes the report that taken altogether the crops 
yielded well last season, and were not seriously affected by the drought. 
The average yields of wheat will run to 16 bushels to the acre and as higli as 
30 bushels on summer fallow land. In this area there are small patches of 



e Canadian Taciflc Railway wltliin shaded Hue, are administered by (lie Dominion Government. 




36 



THE LAST BEST WEST 



laavl that have received scarcely any rain, and yet the yield on these spots 

'''^^r^;fiJughMSa"k"T,rhelt averaged 15 bushels, oats 35 barley 30, and 
n..x bushfu per acre. Tweut y-five bushels to the acre at Kisbey (Sask ), 
and r' Uax \round Wawota (Sask.), wheat went 18 bushels, oats 40, bar- 

£un"l F^r^ki.^ (Sask!l a" L^Hall had 35 bushels wheat to the acre; 
l^^J^rke. sfwhlat and SO cats ,o the acre; O. Giltner 80 bushels oats. 
4 I l>ivne had 30 bushels wheat to the acre and 5o bushels oats. L. M. 
iv.Jr^hty had 25 bushels wheat and 30 bushels barley to the acre. D. M. 
Cilhprt had 70 bushels oats to the acre. , . .u 

The Canadian Pacific HaUway demonstration farms, at Strathraore 
(Alberta' had Swedish variety oats yielding HO bushels to the acre. At 
ha facm two-rowed barley went 48 >4 bushels to the acre. \ lelds of from 
\(> bus els to 100 bushels of oats to the acre were quite common m the 
^tureeon R ver Settlement near Edmonton (Alberta). But last year was 
u noviimonlv good and the hundred mark was passed. Wm. Craig had 
"atrfrom a mfasured plot which gave 107 bushels and 20 pounds per acre. 

Mbert Teskey. of Olds (Alberta^ threshed a 100-a«re field which yieldexl 
101 bushels per acre, and .Joseph Mc(\artney ha.l a large field equally good 
WUlhun KrJfft. of -•Uix (Alberta), threshed 1,042 bushels of winter wheat 
off I'V' a^es or about 53 bushels to the acre. .John Laycroft, of Dmton, 
nLr lligh Hiver had over 1.100 bushels of spring wheat from 50 acres. 

\m.mg the good grain yields at Macklin (Alberta), reported are; D. N. 
Tw^e lie 22 bushels to the acre; John Currin, 24 bushels to the acre; 
Sam. Fletcher, 20 bushels to the acre. 

\t Castor (Alta.), F.Galloway's oat crop threshed 35 bushels to the 
acre, machine measure, and 44 bu.shels by weight. Alex Robertson, of 
Delisle Mta ), ha<l 20 bushels wheat to the acre on 875 acres; W. and H. 
Cltrk 17 buiel.s to the acre on 77 acres; Sheldon Ramsey 20 bushels 
on 160 acre" J. Lane threshed 3,.500 bushels off 200 acres; J I a.uil on, 
^"nn bushels off 264 acres. Mrs. Hea.lley had an average of 25 bushels 
acre on 160 acres. Chambers Bros, got 13,270 bushels off 650 acres. 
G Rollo, FertUe XaWey, had an average of 25 bushels wheat t^ the 
acre or a total crop of 10,000 bushels. ]•:. Brown, of Pincher Creek 
h«Il a vield of 33 bushels on his winter wheat. W. Walker Miss 
Walker and John Goberts all had an average yield of 125 bushels; Mr. 
Fitzpat'rick, 23 bushels, and Mr. Freebairn. 20 bushels. 

Charles Kelson, of Bon Accord (Alberta), threshed 5 000 bushels of. 
er-iin wheat, oats and barley from 210 acres of old ground. Wm. Logan, 
^ Bon \ccord is reported to have threshed 400 bushels of wheat from 
q acres of new breaking. His oats yielded over 100 bushels to the acre 
J E. Vanderburgh, near Daysland (All,erta), threshed 4,000 busl^els of 
wheat from 120 acres. Mr. D'Arcy threshed 10,058 bushels of wheat from 
500 acres and out of this only 60 acres was new land. , ^ , 

Jo"n Kennedy, of the Horse Hills district near Edmonton, from 40 
acres of spr"ng wheat got 1.767 bushels, or 44 bushels to the acre. 

In the Wainwright and Battle River districts yields of wheat averaged 
26 bushels to ihe aire. M. B. Ness of Tofield (-^'''"^^^Vf^Q^llshelfof 
and 28 pounds of oats to the acre, whde near Mon rose, ..ver 94 bushels ot 
oa s to the ecre was threshe-l by J. Leonie, notwithstanding a dry June. 

Fr^nk \fcLav. of the Horse Hills, had 100 bushels of oats to the acre. 
They" eighe.1 45 pounds to the bushel. A 22-acre t,eM of spring wheat on 
Johnson Bros.' farm near Agricola yielded 4li ' - Imshcls to the acre. G. W. 
Buchanan of Phicher Creek (.Mberta). had .'.V , l.ushels of No. 1 spring 
whea^ to the acre. "Sl^. Hatton, of Macleod, had wheat which averaged 
21 bushels to tbe acre. 

W G. CarHell. near Strome (Alberta), had a yield qf 42 bushels per acre 
froin 6 acres of breaking. NeU Callafian had a yi6ld of 42 bushels of 
whS^t per acre. Wm. Lindsay had 1,104 bushels of oats from 10 acres. 
,7oseph Soheeler had 12,000 bushels of wheat and oats from 180 acres. 
Part of the oats yielded 85 bushels, and the w'heat .about 40 bushels. 
\ H Mc<;uUoch had some wheat that went 40 bushels to the acre. 
' J Fitzgerald, of Riviere. Qui Barre, had 130 acres which yielded accord- 
ing to machine measure, 4,900 bushels oats. N Pernt had a field of oats 
which yielded 90 bushels to the acre. George Irwin had about 90 bushels 
oat^ Dcr acre about 68 bushels barley to acre, and a total crop of 3,000 
bu^iels Angus McDonald of Ray had 40 bushels fall wheat to the acre. . 

Steffer Bros., Morinville (Alberta), had 6.50 acres of crop, yielding 3,700 
bushels of grain R Flynp & Sons, of Cardiff (Alberta), had fall wheat yield- 
int S bu hels to the ac/e ; their average yield of spring wheat was 30 busliels 
knd oatsMiO. The spring wheat of M. Auten, Cardiff, went .i2 bushels to tlie 
acre, and' his fall wheat 40 bushels; two-rov.ed barley 41 bushels. 

.V Lindecker, near MorinvUle (Alberta), from a bushel of fall wheat had 
a yieid of 35 bushels. 

Crops around Leduc (Alberta), in 1910 were very good. Reports give 
Jas. Woods 28 bushels fall wheat to the acre; 24 bushels spring wheat, oat.s 
yieUling 62. H. Hansen had 700 bushels fall wheat from 20 acres and 
6«) bufhels barley off 18 acres. A. Burkholder got 35 bushels of barley; 
J Oswald, 636 bushels spring wheat froin 25 acres. I . .J. McRae s wheat 
yielded 26 bushels per acre; oats, 70; barley, 4,5. L. Neiman had /20 
bushels oats off 8 acres. Frank Bill's faU wheat yielded 34 bushels per acre, 
and Mr. Revoir had 35. 

Near Lacombe (Alberta), Mrs. L. M. Graham had 45 bushels fall wheat 
to the acre; J. F. Leader, 60 bushels barley; Jessie Fraser, 41 bushe s 
wheat- J. B. Amett, 99 bushels oats; C. M. Smith, 48 bushels spring wheat ; 
P. A. iswitzer, 132} bushels oats; Jas. Storey, 90 bushels oats. 

FLAX IS PROFITABLE 
So much is heard of the wheat, oats, and barley grown in the prairie lands 
of Western Canada, and so much has been told of the wealth to be made out 
of the raising of cattle on the succulent and rich grasses of those fertile 
plains that a most important product has been a most lost sight of— Ijlax! 
On one of the last boats to clear from Fort William (at the head of Lake 
Superior) for Buffalo, there was 241,000 bushels of flax va tied at $.583,220 
and on another boat leaving the same day there wa-s 288,000 bushels valued 
at 8720 fKK) There has been a big demand for Canadian Hax this season, 
and the' lake movement has been very heavy. Flax is always a sure crop, 
and Kivca U> the farmer who is anxious for quick returns after getting on his 
fandrthe chance he U looking for. At Carlyle Sask.) L Mills threshed 
17 busheU of flax to the acre, while the average of the distr ct wa.i 12. Mul- 
dwm Bros, of Wordsworth shii>ped a car of flax which netted $2,000. 
Twentv-two cars of flax were shi|)ped from this station. 

Hax yields well around Stcttler. W. Ferguson had a ha f section in 
flax, part of it yicl.ling 15 bushels to the acre. Clark and McCullough ha(l 
4W) B'-rM of flax which yiehied 10 bushels to the acre Over 400 acres of 
this field was broken last spring in time for seeding to flax. 

The crop returns for a half section in one year will be about as follows: 
Breaking, double di-tking an<l double harrowing, cost 86.00 per acre; seed 
ci^t 75 cents per acre; har^•csting. 75 cents per acre; stacking, GO cents per 
acre- threshing, $1.25 per acre, or a total cost of $9.35 per acre. 



At a yield of ten bushels per acre of flax at a market price of $2.25 per 
bushel this would return $22.50 per acre. After deducting the cost of $9.35 
per acre, $13.15 per acre is left to pay for the land, which was bought at a 
school land sale at $13.00 and $15.00 per acre in the fall of 1909. 

OPTIMISTIC FEELING EVERYWHERE 

THroughout a trip of several hundred miles in the agri- 
cultural districts of Western Canada, the writer found an 
optimistic feeling prevalent everywhere. It will be inter- 
esting to the thousands in the United States to know that 
their relatives and friends are doing well there, and have 
made their home in a country that stands up so splendidly 
under what has been trying conditions in most of the northr 
western part of the farming districts of the continent.' " With 
the exception of portions of Southern Alberta, Manitoba, 
and Southern Saskatchewan the grain crops could be de- 
scribed as fair, good, and excellent. The same drought that 
affected North and South Dakota, Montana, Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, and other of the northern Central States, extended 
over into a portion of Canada just mentioned. But in these 
portions, the yield for the past four or five years has been 
good. With an utter absence of pessimism many farmers 
said, "One year in five is not bad when we were used to a 
condition before we came here which meant one good crop 
in four or five." Even in the districts mentioned it was 
found there were many crops that would yield fairly well, to 
the surprise of everybody. It was largely attributed to the 
ability of the soil to retain any little moisture that it might 
be favoured with— the best illustration that can be given 
of the splendid character of the soil— and^ the conditions 
through which it has passed will place this portion of the 
country on a firmer basis than ever. But in the greater 
part of Western Canada, where the agricultural areas have 
been made accessible, the crops were good, and the farmers 
happy and contented. 

When the very light rainfall and other eccentricities of 
the past season are taken into account, it seems nothing 
short of a miracle that the Canadian West should have 
produced 10.5 million .bushels of wheat,^ which is less than 
15 million bushels short of the crop- of 1909. It is for the 
West, generally, a paying Crop and perhaps the best adx ci- 
tisement the country has ever had, as it shows that uj 
matter how dry the year, with thorough tillage, good seed 
and proper methods of conserving the moisture, a crop can 
always be produced. 

NOT CHEAP LAND, BUT GOOD LAND FOR NOTHING 

Hon. Frank Oliver, Minister of the Interior, in an inter- 
view, said: 

"Canada is the only country in the world to-day giving 
away good land with good conditions. And it is given awaj 
free, gratis, but, not for nothing. This is with us a mattei 
of principle and national policy. Not only is Canada givinj 
this land away, but she won't sell it. 

"Canada is characterized by conditions of social hfa 
moral atmosphere, religion, fair laws well admimstered^ 
business standards and opportunities, which, in conjunctioi 
with the quality of the fertile land she is giving away, makes 
her unequalled, not only on the American continent, bul 
throughout the British empire and the nations of the world 
This IS the national policy that is the basic foundation of 
our national prosperity— of our unrivalled development 
progress and substantiality, that makes the Dommion of 
Canada 'the best country for .settlers to come to. 

"This national policy that Canada has adopted m regarc 
to land is what is attracting the great rush to the Praine 
Provinces— not cheap land, but good land for nothing, that 
is, for nothing except occupation and use. 

"Then too all the hundreds of thousands that are comma 
to Canada every year know-every man of them— that the 
first-comer gets the land, whatever land he has chosen 
confident that no pull or influence is ahead of him To all 
of them we say: 'We want, not your money, but your 
citizenship.' This is worth more than money to Canada. 



SCHOOLS AND TOWNS 



37 



"After a man has fulfilled the three years' conditions of 
use and occupation of the land the Dominion gives him, the 
land is his in fee simple, absolutely and forever. He can 
keep it or sell it, or do as he likes with it. 

"Canada is establishing a landed aristocracy, in the 
truest meaning of the word — a landed proprietorship extend- 
ing over fertile prairies SOO miles long and 300 miles wide. 
This in due time will make 240.000 square miles of farms and 
homes with incomes, with many busy towns and cities." 

THE SCHOOLS OF WESTERN CANADA 

One of the most important factors in the building of a new 
country is the attention that is paid by the authorities to the 
education of the rising generation. Fortunately for Western 
Canada, the settlement of that new country began in such 
recent years that it was able to lay a foundation for this 
work, gained by the experience of older countries. In this 
way the very best is the result. The cities and towns vie 
with each other in the efforts to secure the best of accommo- 
dation and at the same time get architectural lines that would 
appeal. Nowhere is there greater attention paid to elemen- 
tary and advanced education than in Western Canada. 
Great attention is paid also to agricultural education. The 
best uses of the soil and such other matters as tend to make 
agriculture less of a drudge and more of a success are 
employed. When there is the combination of good soil, 
splendid climate, and healthy and advanced ideas in the 
methods pursued in agriculture, we see accomplished 
the results that have placed Western Canada on its present 
high plane in the agricultural world. There is to be found 
men of high standing in literary spheres as well as in finan- 
cial circles who are carrying on farming, not alone for the 
pleasure they derive, but for the profit they secure. Mr. 
Adler. a wide-awake business man of New York, has a ranch 
near Strathmore, Alberta. He is highly pleased with his 
successes the past year. He says: 

•■On July 25th we estimated our crop at 6.000 bushels of wheat. A 
week Liter we increased our estimate at 12,000 bushels. .\ few days later 
we again increased our estimate, this time to 18,000 bushels, but after 
harvest in September, we found we had 20,150 bushels." 'If that isn't a 
record, what is?' he asked. 

■ This crop was made with practically no moisture," he continued 
"ami we now have a better opmion of the fertility of .\lberta lands thari 
ever and value our lands higher than we ever did before." 

This gentleman is conducting a farm on a large scale, 
and has plenty of means to develop it, and his may not be 
taken as a fair case. There are, though, instances of thou- 
sands who began life on small farms in Western Canada 
with but brains and the determination over and above the 
couple of hundred dollars in ready money that they possessed, 
and to-day are owners of large farms and handsome incomes, 
all the result of their efforts on land that was responsive to 
the touch of the hand that held the plow. 

The Price of Land.— "Homesteading" or the taking up 
a free i;rant of 160 acres of land, is not the only method of 
securing land in Western Canada. The different railway 
companies that secured grants of land as bonuses for construc- 
tion of their roads, have large tracts for sale, varying in 
price according to location from SI 2 to $25 an acre, which 
could have been purchased five or six years ago for about 
one-lialf. There are those who claim that in the next 
three years present prices will double. There is no doubt 
that their value will become enhanced as their worth becomes 
known, and their power of earning proven. There are 
many farmers to-day working Central Canada land, valued 
at S1.5 an acre, who are securing from it better returns than 
they could get from land in the state in which they previously 
lived, and which was sold at prices ranging from S12r, to 
SI 50 an acre. The demand for Central Canada land during 
1910 was greater than in any previous vear, and the demand 
will be greater yet. During the past vear the Government 
sold about 500,000 acres in the three Prairie Provinces, the 
average price being Si 4 an acre. 

The price of land as per actual sales is the best thermometer 



• to gauge the settlement on lands as well as the prosperity 
of the farmers and we quote: 

Iteports from Saskatchewan are that improved land near Areola 
recently changed hands at from S20 to $28 per acre; $20,000 was paid 

' for 700 acres near lioharin; .527 .50 was paid for a half -section near 

I AsQuith, while S15 per acre was i)aid for a half -section, and $30 per 
acre for another. Land near CarndutI brought S25 per acre. At Fleminp, 

i Hauley, Kinley, and Wilkie, lands changed hands last year; at S25 per 
acre; S30 to S40 per acre was a.sked and paid at Francis; $25 to j-'lO 
at Langham; .S33 to .S35 at Macoun; S50 at McTaggart; S35 at Marquis; 
867 50 at Milestones; S14 at Rosetown; S35 to S51 at Rouleau; $29 to 

' S31 at South Qu'Appelle; .S60 to S67 at Wilcox; $22 to $50 at Wilkie; 

i and S35 to .$37 at Zealand la. 

A good many improved farms in Manitoba sold last year at from S30 
t ) $45 per acre. Many farmers there have made fortunes, and are retir- 
ing to the cities and towns. 

I In the older settled portions of the Province of .A.lberta, great progress 
in agriculture has been made and for this reason the price of farm lands 
has made considerable increase in the past two years. The same increase 
in value may be expected in tho nearer dir.tricts to be opened up during 
the year 1911. 

The sales above mentioned, made in districts from five to 
ten years old, were of lands originally purchased at from S8 to 
SI 2 an acre, and show an increase which could not have 
taken place had the lands not had a productive value to 
warrant the figures. In many new districts that are 
being opened up, there is a large amount of land yet to be 
liomesteaded, in every way equal to those referred to, and 
land can be purchased at very low prices, which, in four or 
five years, should show similar increase. 

THE GROWTH OF TOWNS IN WESTERN CANADA 

The traveller passing through a country is impressed 
favourably or otherwise by the appearance of the towns along 
the line of railways. As they appear prosperous and of 
healthy growth, he at once assures himself that there is 
either a local industrial factor to cause it, or a splendidly 
developed agricultural area from which is drawn the resources 
that contribute to the growth that is so readily apparent; 
if evidence of impoverished streets, badly appearing resi- 
dences and business places and lethargic citizens, there is 
an absence of local industry and surrounding agricultural 
prosperity. On all lines of railway throughout Western 
Canada, the villages, towns, and cities convey the most 
favourable impression. The cause is not always apparent 
but the facts are there and easily seen. In most cases the 
growth and stability of these towns is caused by the excellent 
"agricultural districts that are tributary; in some cases, manu- 
facturing enterprises have been created by the agricultural 
demands and needs. Two or three hundred towns have 
come into existence during the past two or three years, and 
many during the past year. The station house, the black- 
smith shop, the boarding house, and the store of April are 
dwarfed in August by a hundred or more dwellings, by large 
hotels, by splendid stores, and a half dozen implement 
warehouses, not forgetting the two or three churches and 
the excellent public school building, and in a few years 
there is a town with well paved and electric-lighted streets, 
market, and all modern equipment. Then, too, there are 
cities of from ten to fifteen thousand people, where five or 
six years ago there was but the bare prairie and the lone 
section post. The changes in the Canadian West during 
the past eight or ten years have been marvellous, and it is 
no idle tale to say that the development in number and 
growth of the cities, towns, and villages there in the past 
decade has eclipsed anything in the history of the building 
of a new country. Agriculture has been the basis, and it 
is agriculture of the kind that is lasting. The ease with 
which Central Canada's virgin prairie is converted into 
an excellent productive farm, capable of yielding a splendid 
living and large profit to the operator, has encouraged 
tliousands from the limited and expensive farms throughout 
the Central Western states as well as some of the Coast 
States, to enlarge their field of enterprise. The climate 
is excellent, and such as is desirable for the health of man 
and the' products of the field. All varieties of the smaller 
and better paying grains are raised, and with every 
assurance of good yields. There is government supervision 
of railway rates, splendid markets, and high prices. 



GENERAL INQUIRIES 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



The accompanying maps and the information given will prove valuable 
to the prospective settler and the person wishing to secure a home at low 
cost in a country long past' the experimental stage, and which offers as 
testimony the splendid yields of grain-wheat, oats, barley, flax-that have 
been the talk of two continents for the past few years. 

The invitation of the Government of the Dominion of Canada extended 
to the people of C.reat Britain. Europe, and the United States to make their 
homes in Central Canada has been warmly accepted. During the past ten 
vears hundreds of thousands have taken advantage of it. All are satisfied, 
doing well, and becoming prosperous, and there is no longer any worry as to 
future prospects-these are assured, and are what the people themselves 
choose to make them. The climate, soil, and other conditions necessary to 
make prosperity are there-all that is necessary is to apply .vour resources. 

Owing to the number of questions asked daily, it has been deemed advis- 
able to put in condensed form, in addition to t >e foregoing information, such 
questions as most naturally occur, giving the answers which experience 
dictates as appropriate, conveying the information commonly asked for. It 
the reader does not find here the answer to his particular difficulty, a letter to 
the Superintendent, or to any Government Agent, will secure full particulars. 



1. 



Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa. Canada. 
Where are these lands? 



ANSWER West of Lake Superior, north of Minnesota, North Dakota, 
and Montana,- and east of the Rocky Mountains, in the provinces of Mani- 
toba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. 

2. What kind of land is it? . . , ^ , - • n i 

ANSWER The land is mostly prairie (except in British Columbia) an. 
can be secured free from timber and stones, if desired, the soil being the ve. y 
hp"t alluvial black loam from one to two feet deep, with a clay subsoil It 
K iLt ro^ fng enough to give it good drainage, and in a great many places 
ihcre is Plemv of timber, and in other places it is underlaid with good coal. 

3 If the land is what you say. why is the Government giving it away? 
ANSWER Canada is 2.50.000 square miles larger than the United 

Stites and the pouulation is only about one-tentli, therefore there is an 
fmmpn^ area of vaca^ land. No matter how fertile land is. it is no use to 
anrcoun?rv unlets i? is made productive. . The Government knowing 
?hat agriculture is the foundation of a progressive country, and that large 
viA Is o7 farm produce insure prosperity in all other branches of business. 

ing eveTyth'ng in its power to assist the armer. It a so realizes 
.1 . u^ir rnnph better for each man to own h s own farm, therefore it 
gives" free grant of 160 acreno e"t?y man who will reside upon it and 
cultivate the same. 

4 Is it timber or prairie land? 

ANSWER This depends greatly upon location. There is more or 
les^Timber along all streams. As you go north or northwest it is more 
hiavily timbered; taken as a whole it is about 20 per cent timber. 

5 What is the duration of the winter? 

ANSWER Snow begins to fall about the middle of November and in 
March the're is generally very little. Near the Rocky Mountains the snow 
? n f m heavv a^ farther east, but the chinook wmds in the West have 
^ temne atfnglnfluence and^ moisture afforded by the fall of snow in the 
E^tTwhichfs so necessary to the successful raising of grain), is supphed by 
t.asi.t y;."'"-". J".'. The absence of the siiowfa would be regretted by the 
arme? Nature has generously Provided for every mile of the country 
and there I really very little choice with the exception that farther west the 
climate is somewhat milder. 

A-N.nVl"ir The TumLr days are warm and the nights cool. Tlie fall 




Wheat Scene in the Park District of Central Saskatchewan The Soil here is the 
The Groves which are easily cleared, provide Fuel and give excellent Shelter 



and spring are most delightful, although it may be said that wmter breaks 
alinost into summer, and the latter lasts until October. Winters are. pleas- 
ant and healthful. There are no pulmonary or other endemic complaints. 

7. Is there sufficient rainfall? 

ANSWER. Speaking generally, yes; a sufficient supply can be re led 
upon The most rain falls in May and .June, just when it is most needed. 

8. What are the roads like? 

\NSWER Bridges and culverts are built where needed, and road- 
ways are usually graded up; but not gravelled or macadamized. Good 
rras-elliag in ordinary seasons and every fall and wmter. Roads are being 
improved as the country becomes more settled. 

9. What sort of people are settled there, and is English generally spoken? 
ANSWER The settlers comprise Canadians, English. Scotch. Irish. 

French, and a large number of Eiiglish-speakiiig Americans (who are going 
in in larte numbirs), with a splendid lot of Germans an.l Scandinavians. 
English is the language of the country, and is spoken everywhere. 

10. Is it well to carry a revolver? 

ANSWER It is against the law to do so without a special license, and 
it is unusual and unnecessary to do so under any ordinary circumstances. 
1 1 Will 1 have to change my citizenship if I go to Canada? 
\NSWER. An alien, before making entry for free homestead land, must 
declare his intention of becoming a British subject and must become natural- 
ized before obtaining patent f..r his land. In the interim he can hold 
possession, live upon the land, and exercise ejery "S^t , of ownership. 
If not already a British subject he must resuie three years in the CQuntry 
to become naturalized. To become a British sub.,ect a sett er of 
foreign birth should make appUcation to anyone authorized to administer 
oaths in a Canadian Court, who will instruct him how to become one. An 
alien may purchase laiid from any of the railway or land companies and 
hold title deed without changing his citizenship. 

12. How about American money? . 

ANSWER. You can take it with you. and have it changed wnen you 
arrive in Canada, or you can get same change<i before you stait. American 
money is taken almost everywhere in Central Canada at its tace value. 

13. Can a man who has used his homestead right in the United States 
take a homestead in Canada? 

ANSWER. Yes. 

14. Does a U. S. pensioner forfeit his pension by moving to Canada? 
ANSWER. No; many such are permanent residents and citizens of 

Canada ami receive their pensions regularly. 

15. If a British subject has taken out "citizen papers" in the United 
States how does he stand in Canada? 

ANSWER. He must be ■•repatriated," i. e., take out a certificate of 
naturalization, which can be .lone after three months' residence in Canada. 

16. What grains are raised in Central Canada? 
ANSWER. Wheat (winter and spring), oats, barley, flax, speltz, and 

other small grains. 

17. How long does it take wheat to mature? 

ANSWER. The average time is from 90 to 110 days. This short time 
is accounted for by the great amount of sunlight. 

18. Can a man raise a crop on the first breaking of his land? 
ANSWER Yes, but it is not regarded as satisfactory 1;o use the land 

for any other purpose tlie first year than for raising garden vegetab es 
or perhaps a crop of flax, as it is necessarily rough ..n account of the 
heavy sod not having had time to rot and become workable. 

19. How is the country for hay in those districts where it is necessary 
to put up hay for use of stock in the winter? 

ANSWER In many parts of the country there is sufficient wild hay 
mea low rm govcr.inient or vacant land, which may be rented at a very low 
rental, if you have not enough on your own iarm, 1 he 
experience of the past few years has proven that timothy 
ami other cultivated grasses can be successtully grown 
Jirome grass is now cultivated. The yield is from two 
to four tons per acre and it is sai l to be more nutri- 
tious than timothy. Alfalfa in many places gives suc- 
cessful yields. 

20. Do vegetables thrive there, and if so, what kinds 
are raised? 

ANSWER Yes, potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets 
onions, parsnips, cabbages, peas, beans, celery, pmnp 
kins, tomatoes, squash, melons, etc., are unequalled 
anywhere. 

21. Can fruit be raised in Central Canada and what 
varieties? 

ANSWER Small fruits grow wild. Among those 
cultivated are plums, cranberries, strawljerries, goose 
berries raspberries, etc. In the Eastern Provinces an 
British Columbia fruit growing of all kinds is came 
on very extensively and successfully. 

22. About what time does seeding begin? 
ANSWER As a rule farmers begin their seedin 

from the first to the fifteenth of April, sometimes con- 
tinuing well into May. 

23. How is it for stock raising? 

ANSWER. The country ' has no equal. The climate 
in many parts is such that wild cattle are never housed 
throughout the winter, and so nutritious are the wild 
grasses that stock is markete.l without having been fed 
any grain. 

24. In what way can I secure land in Central Canada? 

ANSWER By homesteading, pre-empting, veteran 
scrip, or purchasing from railway or land companies. 

25. Can I take up more than i6o acres? 
ANSWER. Under the new land regulations, an 



best in Canada 
for Cattle 



38 



GENERAL INQUIRIES 



39 



adilitional 160 acres in a certain area may be taken up as a pre-emption at 
a cost of $3.CH) per acre. For con'iitions see •■Uoraestea>l Regulations," 
page 2 of cover. 

2*. Can I get a map or list of lands vacant and open to homestead entry? 

.\NSWKR. No; it has been found impracticable to keep a publication 
of tliat kin.) up to date, owing to the fretiuent clianges. .An intending 
settler sliouUl decide in a general way where he will go, and on reaching 
Central Canada should enquire of the Government officials what lands 
are vacant in that particular locality, tinally narrowing down the enquiry 
to a township or two, diagrams of which, with the vacant lamls marked, 
will be supplied, free, on application to any local agent of Dominion Lands 

27. If a man take his family there before he selects a homestead can he 
get temporary accommodation? . . , 

ANSWER. .\t a great many places the Government maintains Immigra- 
tion halls and gives free temporary accommodation for those desiring such 
and supplying their own pmvisions. It is .ilways better for the heail of the 
family, or such member of it as may be entitle! to h.)mestead, t-i select and 
make cntrv for lamls before moving family. 

28. Where must I make my homestead or pre-emption entry? 
.\NS\VI;K. Land district office in which selection is made. 

29. Can homestead lands be reserved for a minor? 

\NS\VER. Yes; an agent of Dominion Lands may reserve a quarter- 
section for a minor over 17 years of age until he is 18 if his father, etc., live 
upon the homestead or upon farming land owned, not less than 80 acres in 
extent, within 9 miles of reserved section The minor must make entry in 
person within one month after becoming IS years of age. 

30. Can a person borrow money on a homestead before receiving patent? 
ANSWER. No; contrary to Dominion Lands Act. 

31. Are homesteads available in the Peace River district? 
ANSWER. A few townships have been subdivided and thrown open 

for homesteading. 

32. Would the time I was away working for a neighbour, or on the 
railway, or other work count as time on my homestead? 

ANSWER. Only actual residence 
on your homestead will count, arid 
you must reside on homestead six 
months in each of three years 

33. Is it permissible to reside 
with brother, who has filed on the 
other half of the section on which I 
have filed? 

ANSWER. A homesteader may 
reside with father, mother, son, 
daughter, brother, or sister on farm- 
ing land owned solely by him or 
her, not less than 80 acres, or upon 
homestead entered for by him or her 
in the vicinity, which means not 
more than nine miles from entrant's 
homestead. Fifty acres of home- 
stead must be brought under culti- 
vation in this case, instead of 30 
acres, as is the case when there is 
direct residence on the homestead. 

34. What is the pre-emption area? 
ANSWER. By reference to map 

on pages 6 and 7 you will observe 
the portion colored green. Within 
this area it is possible to secure a 
homestead of 160 acres free, and an 
adjoining additional 160 acres on 
payment of three dollars per acre 
See Homestead Regulations, page 2 
of cover. 



A First- Year Homestead Scene in the 
Couple of Years' Time the Oxen Will 



35. How shall I know what to do 
or where to go when I reach there? 

.A.NSWER. Make a careful study of this pamphlet and decide in a 
general way on the district in which you wish to settle. Then put yourself 
in Communication with your nearest Canadian Government agent, whose 
name appears on the third page of cover. At Winnipeg, and in the 
offices of any of the Dominion Lands agents in Central Canada, 
are maps showing vacant lands. Having decided on the district where 
you will make your home, the services of a competent land guide may be 
secured to assist in locating. 

36. What is the best way to get there? 

ANSWER. You will find it to yfiur advantage to'write or call upon your 
nearest Canadian Government agent. 

37. What about cost of transportation? 

.ANSWER. On securing a Itw-rate certificate from a Government 
agent reduce l rates on Canadian railway from boundary points may be had 
for both passengers and freight. 

38. How much baggage will I be allowed on the Canadian railways? 

.A.N'SWKR. 1.50 pounds for each full ticket. 

39. How much money must one have to start grain farming and how 
little can he do with if he goes ranching? 

ANSWER. See Chapter "Money Qualifications," page 9. 

40. How can I procure lands for ranching? 

ANSWER. They may be leased from the Government at a low rental. 
Write for full particulars to Secretary of the Interior, Ottawa Canada. 

41. In those parts which are better for cattle and sheep than for grain, 
what does a man do if he has only i6o acres? 

AN.SWER. If a settler should desire to go into stock raising and his 
quarter-section of 160 acres should not prove sufficient to furnish pasture 
for his stock, he can make application to the Land Commissioner for a lease 
for grazing lands for a term of twenty-one years, at a very low cost. 

4^ Where is information to be had about British Columbia? 

AN.SW^ER. Apply to Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa, Ontario, 
or to the .Secretarj', Provincial Bureau of Information, Victoria, B. C. 

43. Is living expensive? 

ANSWER. Sugar, granulated, 14 to 18 lbs. for 81, according to 
fluctuation of market. Tea, 30 to 50c a lb. ; coffee, 30 to 4.5c a lb. ; 
bacon 12i to 18c; flour, SI. 75 to $2.75 per 98 lbs. Dry goods about 
Extern Canada prices. Cotton somewhat dearer than in United States, 
and woollen goods noticeably cheaper. Stoves and furniture considerably 
higher than eastern prices, owing to freight charges. 



44. Are the taxes high? 

ANSWER. No. Having no expensive system of municipal or county 
organization, ta.xes are nece.-i.sarily low. Each quarter-section of land, con- 
sisting of 160 acres, owned or occupied, is taxed very low. The only other 
taxes are for schools. In the locations where the settlers have formed 
school districts the total tax for all purposes on a quarter-section seldom 
exceeds $8 to SIO per annum. 

45. Does the Government tax him if he lets his cattle run on Government 
lands, and will he get into trouble if his cattle go on land leased by the big 
ranchers? If they fence their land, is he obliged to fence his also? 

.A.NSWER. The settler is not required to pay a tax for allowing his 
cattle to run on Government land, but it is advisable to lease land from 
the Government for haying or grazing purposes, when needed It seems 
reasonable that, if a settler's quarter-section is in the vicinity or adjoining 
a rancher's land which he has leased and paid for, that he should object to 
anyone's cattle running over his property, and vice versa. If one fences 
his land, his adjoining neighbor has to stand a proi)ortionate share of the 
cost of the fence adjoining his property, or build one-half of it himself, but 
ranchers seldom fence land for ranching. 

46. Where can a settler sell what he raises? Is there any competition 
amongst buyers, or has he got to sell for anything he can get? 

-ANSWER. .A system of elevators is established by railway comt)anies 
and others throughout the entire West. Grain is bought at these and for- 
warded to the great markets in other parts of Canada, the United States, 
and Europe. There are in Canada many large flour mills, oatmeal mills, and 
breweries, which use millions of bushels of grain. To the west and northwest 
of Central Canada lie world-famed mining regions, which are dependent 
upon the prairies for supplies and will to a great extent continue to be. 
Beef IS bought on the hoof at the home of the farmer or rancher. Buyers 
scour the country in quest of its products. 

47. Where can material for a house and sheds be procured, and about 
what would it cost? What about fuel? Do people suffer from the cold? 

.ANSWER. Though there are large tracts of forest in the Canadian West 
there are localities where the quantity of building timber and material is 
limited, but this has not proven any drawback as the Government has 

made provision for such cases. 
Should a man settle on a quarter-sec- 
tion cleprived of timber, he can, by 
making application to the Dominion 
Lands .Agent, obtain a permit to cut 
on Government lands free of charge 
the following, viz : 

1. 3,000 lineal feet of building 
• timber, measuring no more than 12 
inches at the butt, or 9,250 feet 
board measure. 2. 400 roofing 
poles. 3. 2.000 fencing rails and 
500 fence posts, 7 feet long, and 
not exceeding five f5) inches in 
diameter at the small end. 4. 30 
cords of dry fuel wood for firewood. 

Having all these free of charge, 
the settler has only the expense of 
the cutting and hauling to his home- 
stead, which can not cost him a 
great deal. The principal districts 
are within easy reach of firewood ;the 
settlers of Alberta and Saskatchewan 
are particularly favoured, especially 
along the various streams, from 
some of which they get all the coal 
they require, frequently at the cost 
of handling and hauling it home. 
No one in the country need suffer 
from the cold on account of scarcity 
of fuel. 

Park District of Central Canada. In a ^8. What does lumber cost? 
Give Way to Horses or GasoUne Power ANSWER. Spruce boards and 

dimension, about S18 per thousand 
feet; shiplap, S20; flooring and siding, $23 up, according to quality; 
cedar shingles, .S2.50 to .S3 per thousand. These prices fluctuate. 

49. What chance is there for employment when a man first goes there 
and isn't working on his land? 

ANSWER. There are different industries through the country, outside of 
farming and ranching, such as sawmills, flour mills, brick-yards, railroad 
building in the summer, and lumbering in the winter; it is generally easy 
for a man to find employment at fair wages when not working on his land. 
The chances for employment are good, as a large percentage of those going 
in and those already there farm so much that they must have help, and pay 
good wages. During the past two seasons from twenty to thirty thousand 
farm labourers have been brought in each year from the eastern provinces 
to assist in caring for the large crops. People without capital, not able or 
not knowing how to work, will find difficulty in getting on in any country; 
the capable and willing worker is sure to succeed in Central Canada. 

50. Can I get employment with a farmer so as to become acquainted 
with local conditions? 

ANSWER. This can be done through the Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion at Winnipeg immediately on your arrival. He is in a position to offer 
engagements with well-established farmers. Men experienced in agricul- 
ture may expect to receive from S20 up per month with board and lodging, 
engagements, if desired, to extend for twelve months. 

51. But if I have had no experience and simply desire to learn farming in 
Central Canada before starting on my own account? 

.AN.SWER. Young men and others unacquainted with farm life, who 
are willing to accept from .S8 up per month, including board and lodging, 
will be able to find positions through the Government officers at Winnipeg. 
Wages are dependent upon experience and qualifications, and no one is 
expected to work for nothing. After working for a year in this way, the 
knowledge acquired will be found sufficient to justify you in taking a free 
grant and farming on your own account. 

52. Are there any schools outside the towns? 

ANSWER. School districts can not exceed five miles in length or 
breadth, and must contain at least four actual residents, and twelve chil- 
dren between the ages of five and sixteen. In almost every locality, where 
these conditions exist, schools have sprung up. 

53. Is there a State church in Canada; are churches numerous? 
ANSWER. No. But the variovis denominations are well represented 

and churches are being buil^rapidly even in the most remote diatrictg. 

54. Can water be secured at reasonable depth? 

A.VSWER. In most places it can be had at from fifteen to forty feet, 
while in other places wells have been sunk to fifty or sixty feet. 




BRITISH COLUMBIA 



Stretching from the Rockies to the sea and from the United 
States to the 60th parallel, British Columbia is the largest 
Province in the Dominion. It is big enough to enable one 
to place in it. side bv side at the same time, two Englands, 
three Irelands, and four Scotlands. Looking across the 
water to the millions of British subjects in India, in Hong- 
Kong, in Australia, and the isles of the sea, one catches brief 
pathetic glimpses of the commercial greatness which the 
Pacific has begun to waft to these shores. Nature intended 
British Columbia to develop a great seaward commerce, 
and substantial trade relations are now established north- 
ward to the Yukon and southward to Mexico. 

British Columbia has natural wealth in her forests and 
her fish, in her whales and seals and fruit farms. But it is 
from her mines, more than from aught else, that she will 
derive her future wealth. 

The parallel chains of the Rockies, the Selkirks, and the 
Coast Range are a rich dower. They furnish scenery unri- 
valled in its majesty; they are nurseries of great rivers which 
pour tribute into three oceans; and in their rocky embrace 
they hold a mineral wealth .second to none. 

British Columbia contains an aggregate of from 16 million 
to 20 million unoccupied arable acres. Sir William Dawson 
has estimated that in the British Columbia section of the 
Peace River Valley alone, the wheat-growing area will amount 
to 10 million acres. It is a country of big things. 

Rivers.— All the great rivers flowing into the Pacific, with 
the exception of the Colorado, have their sources within 
the boundaries of this Province. The most important of 
these are the Columbia, which has a course of 600 miles 
in British Columbia; the Fraser, 750 miles long; the Skeena, 
300 miles long, the Thompson, the Kootenay, the Stikine 
the Liard, and the Peace. These rivers, with their tribu- 
taries, drain an area of one-tenth of the whole of the North 
American continent. The lake area aggregates 1 Yi million 
acres. 

A Rich Province.— British Columbia coal measures are 
sufficient to supply the world for centuries. It possesses the 
greatest compact area of merchantable timber in the world. 
Tiie mines are in the early stages of their development, and 
yet they have already produced over $275,000,000. The 
fisheries return an average annual yield of $7,500,000. 




British Columbia's trade, per head of population, is the 
largest in the world. The chief exports are salmon, coal, 
gold, silver, copper, lead, timber, masts and spars, furs and 
skins, whale-oil, sealskins, hops, and fruit. An inter-provin- 
cial trade with Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the 
Eastern Provinces is developing, British Columbia fruit 
finding a ready and lucrative market in the Prairie Provinces. 

Railways.— The Canadian Pacific Railway maintains two 
main lines, the Canadian Pacific Railway proper and Crow's 
Nest Pass Railway, and several branches making connection 
with United States railway systems. It also employs a fleet 
of seventeen coastwise steamers. Its Empress liners make 
regular trips to China and Japan. The Canadian-Austra'ian 
liners give service to Hawaii, Fiji, Australia, and New Zea- 
land. The recent purchase by the Canadian Pacific Railway 
of the Esquimalt & Northern Railway, running from Victoria 
to Wellington on Vancouver Island, together with the land 
grant of \\ million acres which went with the railway trans- 
fer, has given impetus to development on the island. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific, which will traverse Canada from 
the Pacific terminal. Prince Rupert, to Moncton, New Brun.s- 
wick, is prosecuting work on its line from Prince Rupert 
eastward. This railway will open to settlement a vast 
area rich in timber, minerals, and agricultural soil. 

The Great Northern enters the Province at points on 
the boundary and the Canadian Northern has completed 
arrangements for construction to Vancouver. The com- 
bined railway mileage of the Province is 1,600 miles, being 
one mile of track for each 250 square miles of area. 

Climate.— The Japan current and the moisture-bearing 
winds from the Pacific, exercise a moderating influence on 
tlie climate of the coast and provide a copious rainfall. The 
climate of British Columbia, as a whole, presents all the condi- 
tions to be met with in European countries lying within the 
Temperate Zone. Pure air, absence of extremes in tempera- 
ture, freedom from malaria, make British Columbia one vast 
sanitarium. British Columbia is essentially the scenic Prov- 
ince. Scarcely a farmhouse in all the valley regions is with- 
out a view of majestic mountains. 

Mining.— British Columbia has been pertinently called 
"The Mineral Province," a title justified by the fact that in 
1907 her production of gold, silver, copper, lead, and coal 

amounted to 64 per cent of the 
com bined output of the other eight 
provinces of Canada. 

The Soil and Its Products.— 
British Columbia is so large that 
one has to explore it beyond the 
highway of the railroad to dis- 
cover its agricultural and eco- 
nomic possibilities. Professor 
Macoun says, "The whole of Brit- 
ish Columbia south of 52° and 
east of the Coast Range is a 
grazing country up to 3,500 feet, 
and a farming country up to 
2,500 feet where irrigation is 
• possible." 

As far north as 55° excellent 
apples flourish, and in the south- 
ern belt the more delicate fruits, 
peaches, grapes, and apricots can 
be reared. Some stretches of the 
best agricultural land extend over 
areas as follows: 



40 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 



41 



NicoU, Simakamceii aii.l Kettle Uiver \ alleys -JaO 000 
Dkaimgan 5n 'nnn 

ami West K.-otenay 'r?' 

North aud South Thompsotj Valley o.UOU 

West of the Coast Range streti-h tracts 
of arable land, notably the Lower Frascr 
Valley, Westminster district, Vancouver 
Island, and adjacent islands in the Gulf of 
Georgia. The opportunities for proHtable 
diversified farming are .practically un- 
limited. Tiie demand for every product of 
the farm is Ecre^t now, and is ever increas- 
ing. Dairying pays handsomely. 

Along the line of the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific in the Nechaco and Bulkley \ alleys, 
there is some splendid farming land easily 
accessible, selling at reasonable prices. 
These lands produce abundant crops of 
w heat, oats, barley, and other small grain, 
as well as remarkable crops of hay, for 
which there is a splendid market. The 
climate is excellent and the snowfall varies 
from six to fifteen inches. 




Fruit Growing. — A small exhibit of Brit- 
ish Columbia fruit sent to England in 1904 
captured the gold medal of the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society. A car lot exhibited in London in 100.5 won 
the first prize from all competitors. Again, in 1906 and 1907, 
collections of British Columbia, apples carried off the gold 
medals of the Royal Horticultural Societies of both England 
and Scotland. At least 1 million acres south of .52° will 
produce all the fruits of the Temperate Zone. 

The recognized fruit districts include the southern part of 
Vancouver Lsland and the Gulf Islands, Lower Eraser Valley. 
Thompson Valley, Shuswap Lake, Okanagan, Osoyoos, 
Similkameen, Upper Columbia Valley, Kootenay Lake, .\rrow 
Lake, Lower Columbia, Grand Forks, Nicola, Grand Prairie. 

The fruit shipments for 1908 gave an increase of 1,700 tons 
over 1907. Over a million and a half fruit trees were im- 
ported during the year. Great profits accrue to the fruit 
grower in this favored Province. At Kelowna ten tons of 
prunes to the acre is not an uncommon crop. At Lytton, 
Tokay grapes averaging four pounds to the bunch are 
grown in the open. On the Coldstream ranch, near Vernon, 
twenty acres produced 810,000 worth of Northern Spy 
apples. At Peachland an acre and a half in peaches gave a 
return of S700. Tomatoes to the value of .SI, .500 per acre 
were grown on Okanagan Lake. A cherry tree at Agassi z 
produced 1,000 pounds of fruit. There are now over 100,000 
acres in orchard lands. 

Vancouver Island. — Vancouver Island in one of the most 
interesting parts of the British Empire. The Canadian 
Pacific Railway is clearing large blocks of the heavily 
timbered land, along the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, so 
bringing it within the reach of settlers. All the grains, 
grasses, roots, and vegetables grow, and yield heavily. 
Apples, pears, plums, prunes, and cherries grow luxuriantly 
everywhere, and the more tender fruits, peaches, apricots. 



Pioneer Ranch Oats. Bulkley Valley, B. C. Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 



nectarines, and grapes attain perfection in sheltered southern 
districts. 

Earl Grey, the Governor-General of Canada, in opening the 
New Westminster Exhibition, said: 

Fruit-growing here is a beautiful art as well as a most profitable industry. 
.\fter five years, the fruit grower may look forward with certainty to a 
net income of from ."^lOO to Sl-50 per acre. Here is a state of things which 
offers the opportunity of living under such i !eal I'onditions as struggling 
humanity has sue eeded in reaching only in one or two of the m ist 
favoureil s|> )ts on earth. 

How to Get the Land. — Crown lands in British Columbia 
are laid off and surveyed into quadrilateral townships, con- 
taining thirty-six sections of one square mile in each. Any 
person, being the head of a family, a widow, or single man 
over the age of eighteen year.?, and being a British subject 
(or anv alien upon making a declaration of his intention to 
become a British subject), may for agricultural purposes 
record any tract of unoccupied and unreserved crown land 

i (not being an Indian settlement), not exceeding 160 acres 

j in extent. 

] The Government of British Columbia does not grant 
free homesteads. The pre-emptor of land must pay Sl.OO 
an acre for it, live upon it for two years, and improve it to 

I the extent of S2.50 per acre. All particulars regarding crown 
lands of this Province, their location, and method of pre- 
emption can be obtained by communicating with the sub- 
joined government agencies for the respective districts, or 
from the Secretary, Bureau of Agriculture, Victoria, B. C. 

\lberni Nanaimo. New Westmin.ster. Golden, Cranbrook, Kaslo. Nelson, 
Revelstoke. Bakersville. Telegraph Creek, Atlin. Prince Rupert, Hazleton, 
Kamloops, Nicola, Vernon. Fairview. Clinton, Ashcroft 

Chief Cities.— Victoria, the capital, 40,000; Vancouver, 
the commercial capital, 100,000; New Westminster, 12,000; 
Nelson 7 000; Nanaimo, 7,000; Rossland, 5,500: Kamloops, 
.3,000; Grand Forks, .3.000; Revelstoke, 3,500; Fernie, 3,500: 
Cranbrook, 3.500; Ladysmith, 3, .500; Prince Rupert, 1,500. 
Fort George on the Eraser and Nechaco Rivers and Grand 
Trunk Pacific will be an important town in the near future. 



For further information 

W. W. CORY, 

Deputy Minister of the Interior, 
Ottawa, Canada. 



M. V. McINNES, No. 176 .lefferson .Vve., Detroit .Michigan. 
JAMES GRIEVE, Auditorium Building, Spokane, Wash. 
W. H. Rogers, 125 W. Ninth Street, Kansas Citv. -Mo. 
E. T. HOLMES, 315 .lackson Street. St. Paul, Minnesota. 
GEORGE A. H4LL, 123 2d Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
C. J. BROUGHTON, 4th floor, Merchants' Loan and Trust 

I'lrldlng. Cliicago, Illinois. 
W. V. BENNETT, Bee Building, Omaha Neb. 



regarding Central Canada low rates of transportation, inqtoiries may be addressed 

to any one of the following: .,^t,t> 

W. D. SCOTT, J- BRUCE WALKER, 

Superintendent of Iminigration, Commissioner of Immigration, 

Ottawa, Canada. W^innipeg, Manitoba. 

UNITED STATES AGENTS: 

C. PILLING, Clifford Block, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 

G. A. AIRD, 3d floor, T. T. Bldg., Indianopohs, Ind. 

H. M. WILLIAMS, Gardner Block, Toledo, Ohio. 
C. A. LAURIER, Marquette, Michigan. 
BEN J. DAVIES, Dunn Block, Great Falls, Montana. 
THOS. HETHERINGTON, 2d floor, Tremont Building, Tre- 

mont Street. Boston, Massachusetts. 
J. S. CRAWFORD, .301 Genesee Street, Syracuse, N. V. 



J. M. MacLACHLAN, P,ox G26 Watertown. South Dakota.